ഇന്ത്യയിലെ യുനെസ്കോ ലോക പൈതൃക കേന്ദ്രങ്ങൾ
1972 നവംബർ 16- ന് യുനെസ്കോയുടെ വേൾഡ് ഹെറിറ്റേജ് "കൻവെൻഷൻ കൺസേർണിങ്ങ് ദി പ്രൊട്ടക്ഷൻ ഓഫ് ദി വേൾഡ് കൾച്ചറൽ ആൻഡ് നാച്ചുറൽ ഹെറിറ്റേജ് " ആണ് ലോകരാജ്യങ്ങളിലെ പൈതൃകങ്ങൾ സംരക്ഷിക്കാൻ വേണ്ട ശ്രമങ്ങൾക്ക് സ്ഥായിയായ തുടക്കമിട്ടത്. യുനെസ്കോയുടെ ജനറൽ അസംബ്ലി തിരഞ്ഞെടുക്കുന്ന വേൾഡ് ഹെറിറ്റേജ് കമ്മിറ്റി ആണ് പൈതൃക പട്ടികയിലേക്കുള്ള സ്ഥലങ്ങളും , സ്മാരകങ്ങളും മറ്റു നിർമ്മിതികളും കണ്ടെത്തുന്നത്. പാരിസ്ഥിതികവും സാംസ്കാരികവുമായ 10 പ്രത്യേകതകൾ പരിഗണിച്ചാണ് പട്ടികയിലേക്കുള്ള തിരഞ്ഞെടുപ്പ് നടത്തുന്നത്.ഇതുവരെ (AD-2012) യുള്ള കണക്കു പ്രകാരം 157 രാജ്യങ്ങളിൽ നിന്നായി 962 കേന്ദ്രങ്ങളാണ് പൈതൃക പട്ടികയിൽ ഇടം പിടിച്ചത്. ഏറ്റവും കൂടുതൽ പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രങ്ങൾ പട്ടികയിൽ ഇടം പിടിച്ചിട്ടുള്ളത് ഇറ്റലിയിൽ നിന്നാണ്, 55 എണ്ണം. സാംസ്കാരികമോ സ്വാഭാവികമോ ആയ പൈതൃകങ്ങൾക്കു പ്രാധാന്യമുള്ള സ്ഥലങ്ങളാണ് ഇവയെല്ലാം. 
ഇന്ത്യയിൽ നിന്നും ആദ്യമായി ലോകപൈതൃകപ്പട്ടികയിൽ ഇടം നേടിയത് ആഗ്ര കോട്ട, അജന്ത ഗുഹകൾ എന്നിവയാണ്. 1983-ലെ വേൾഡ് ഹെറിറ്റേജിന്റെ ഏഴാം സെഷനിലാണ് ഇവ രേഖപ്പെടുത്തിയത്. യുനെസ്കോ ലോക പൈതൃകപട്ടികയിൽ, ഇന്ത്യയിൽ നിന്നും ഉൾപ്പെട്ട സ്ഥലങ്ങൾ.
യുനെസ്കോ ലോക പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രങ്ങളുടെ സ്ഥാനം[തിരുത്തുക]
ഈ ലേഖനം ഇപ്പോൾ നിർമ്മാണ പ്രക്രിയയിലാണ്. താല്പര്യമുണ്ടെങ്കിൽ താങ്കൾക്കും ഇത് വികസിപ്പിക്കാൻ സഹായിക്കാം. ഈ ലേഖനമോ ലേഖന വിഭാഗമോ ഏതാനും ദിവസങ്ങൾക്കുള്ളിൽ എഡിറ്റ് ചെയ്യപ്പെടുന്നില്ലെങ്കിൽ, ദയവായി ഈ ഫലകം നീക്കം ചെയ്യുക.
- പേര്: ലോക പൈതൃക കമ്മിറ്റിയിൽ നിശ്ചയിച്ച പ്രകാരം
- സ്ഥാനം: പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രം സ്ഥിതിചെയ്യുന്ന നഗരം/പ്രദേശം, സംസ്ഥാനം
- കാലഘട്ടം: പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രം നിർമ്മിക്കപ്പെട്ട കാലഘട്ടം, പാരിസ്ഥിതിക പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രങ്ങൾക്ക് നിർമ്മാണകാലഘട്ടം ബാധകമല്ല.
- യുനെസ്കോ വിവരങ്ങൾ: പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രത്തിന്റെ റെഫറൻസ് സംഖ്യയും; പട്ടികയിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തിയ വർഷവും; പട്ടികയിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തിയ മാനദണ്ഡവും.
- വിവരണം: പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രത്തെകുറിച്ച് ചെറിയ വിവരണം
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was listed as being danger (since 1992),but removed in 2011 following significant improvements. Hampi was added to the danger list in 1999, but removed in 2006 following successful conservation efforts.
|01||കാസിരംഗ||ആസാം, ഇന്ത്യ||20ആം നൂറ്റാണ്ട്||337; 1985; ix, x||ആസാം സംസ്ഥാനത്ത് ബ്രഹ്മപുത്ര നദിയുടെ കരയിലായി വ്യാപിച്ച് കിടക്കുന്ന ഈ ദേശീയോദ്യാനത്തെ, അതിന്റെ അതുല്യമായ പരിസ്ഥിതി ഘടന കണക്കിലെടുത്ത് 1985 -ലാണ് യുനെസ്കൊ ലോകപൈതൃക പട്ടികയിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തിയത്. പ്രധാനമായും കണ്ടാമൃഗങ്ങളെ സംരക്ഷിക്കുക എന്ന ആശയം മുൻ നിർത്തി 1908-ൽ ഒരു റിസർവ് ഫോറസ്റ്റായാണ് കാസിരംഗ നിലവിൽ വന്നത്. It underwent several transformations over the years, as The Kaziranga Game Sanctuary in 1916, renamed Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950, and declared a national park in 1974. The park, which covers an area of 42,996 hectare (106,250 acre), has the distinction of being home to the largest population of the great ഇന്ത്യn one-horned rhinoceros. There are many other mammals and birds species in the sanctuary.|
|02||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam||Assam, ഇന്ത്യ||01520th century||338; 1985; vii, ix, x||Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, located in the northeastern state of Assam covers an area of 50,000 hectare (120,000 acre) in the plains of the Manas River in the foot hills of the Himalayas, on the border with Bhutan (contiguous with the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary in Bhutan). It was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 for its unique natural environment. The sanctuary is the habitat of several species of plants, 21 most-threatened species of mammals (out of 55 mammal species in the sanctuary), 36 reptile species, 3 amphibians and 350 species of birds. Endangered species include tiger, pygmy hog, clouded leopard, sloth bear, ഇന്ത്യn rhinoceros, wild buffaloes (the only pure strain of buffalo in ഇന്ത്യ), ഇന്ത്യn elephants, golden langur and Bengal florican. In 1907, it was declared a reserve forest, was declared a sanctuary in 1928, and became a tiger reserve in 1973 as part of "Project Tiger" and a World Heritage Site in December 1985. Plants listed under the broad category of Burma Monsoon Forests include 285 species of Dicotyledons and 98 species of Monocotyledons. Since 1992, the sanctuary was listed under "The World Heritage in Danger"|, but removed in 2011 after significant conservation efforts.|
|03||Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya, ബീഹാർ||ബീഹാർ, ഇന്ത്യ||015 3rd century BC, 5th and 6th century AD and 19th century||1056 rev; 2002; i,ii, iii, iv, vi||Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (Buddha Gaya), spread over an area of 4.86 hectare (12.0 acre) was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List i as a unique property of cultural and archaeological importance. The first temple was built by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC (260 BC) around the Bodhi Tree Ficus religiosa (to the west of the temple). However, the temples seen now are dated between 5th and 6th centuries AD. The structures have been built in bricks. Revered and sanctified as the place where Siddhartha Gautama Buddha was enlightened in 531 BC at age 35, and then propagated his divine knowledge of Buddhism to the world, it has been the ultimate temple for reverential worship, over the last several centuries, by Buddhists of all denominations, from all over the world who visit on pilgrimage. The main temple is 50 m in height, built in ഇന്ത്യn architectural style, dated between 5th and 6th centuries, and it is the oldest temple in the ഇന്ത്യn sub-continent built during the "Golden Age" of ഇന്ത്യn culture credited to the Gupta period. Sculpted balustrades of the Ashokan times (3rd century BC) are preserved in the Archaeological Museum located within the temple complex.|
|04||Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi||Delhi, ഇന്ത്യ||015 1572||232, 1993, (ii), (iv)||Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi, the first tomb built with several innovations, set at the centre of luxurious gardens with water channels, was the precursor monument to the Taj Mahal (built a century later). It was built in 1570 and was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Monument in 1993 for its cultural importance. It was built in 1569–1570 by the second Mughal Emperor Humayun’s widow Biga Begum (Hajji Begum). Its architecture is credited to Mirza Ghiyath and its Mughal architectural style has been acclaimed as the "necropolis of the Mughal dynasty" for its double domed elevation provided with Chhatris. Apart from the tomb of Humayun, the funerary also has 150 tombs of various members of the royal family. The tomb is built with a char-bagh (fourfold) layout with two gates, one on the south and the other on the west. It has a number of water channels, a pavilion and a bath. The tomb set on an irregular octagonal plinth has a raised dome of 42.5 m height, covered by marble slabs and decorated with chhatris.|
|05||Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi||Delhi, ഇന്ത്യ||015 Late 12th century||233, 1993, (iv)||Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi, located to the south of Delhi, is a complex with the Qutb Minar as the centre piece, which is a red sandstone tower of 72.5 മീറ്റർ (238 അടി) height with a base of 14.32 മീറ്റർ (47.0 അടി) reducing to 2.75 മീറ്റർ (9.0 അടി) diameter at the top. Built in the beginning of the 13th century, the complex of structures comprises itineraries, the Alai Darwaza Gate (1311), the Alai Minar (an incomplete mound of the intended Minar or tower), the Qubbat-ul-Islam Mosque (the earliest existing mosque in ഇന്ത്യ), the tomb of Iltumish, and an Iron Pillar. The complex is a testimony to the Islamic depredations during the period as seen from the materials used for building the complex which are those that were removed after destroying Hindu and Jain temples; a shining iron pillar of 7.02 മീറ്റർ (23.0 അടി) height (without any trace of rusting) erected at the centre of the complex, with inscriptions in Sanskrit, of the Chandra Gupta II period is a moot witness. History records its construction, initially by Qutubuddin Aibak in 1192, its completion by Iltumish (1211–36) and again by Alauddin Khalji (1296–1316). It underwent several renovations by subsequent rulers, following damage to the structures due to lightning. It was inscribed under the UNESCO World Heritage List under category iv for its unique representation of the Islamic architectural and artistic excellence.|
|06||Red Fort Complex||Delhi, ഇന്ത്യ||0151648||231rev, 2007, (ii), (iii), (vi)||Red Fort Complex, also known as Lal Qila is a palace fort built in the 17th century by Shahjahan (1628–58), the fifth Mughal emperor as part of his new capital city of Shahjahanabad. located to the north of Delhi. It represents the glory of the Mughal rule and is considered the Highpoint of Mughal architectural, artistic aesthetic creativity. The architectural design of the structures built within the fort represents a blend of Persian, Timuri and ഇന്ത്യn architectural styles; Isfahan, the Persian Capital is said to have provided the inspiration to build the Red Fort Complex. The planning and design of this complex, in a geometrical grid plan with pavilion structures, was the precursor of several monuments which were built later in Rajasthan, Delhi, Agra and other places. The palace complex has been fortified by an enclosure wall built with red sand stone (hence the name Red Fort). It is adjacent to the Salimgarh Fort on its north built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546 and is now part of the Red Fort Complex (area covered 120 acres) under the revised inscription of the UNESCO World Heritage List under categories (i),(ii), (iii) and (vi). Built between 1639 and 1648, enclosing an area of size 656 മീറ്റർ (2,152 അടി)x328 മീറ്റർ (1,076 അടി) and raising to a height of 23 മീറ്റർ (75 അടി) on the right bank of the Yamuna River, it is linked to the Salimgarh Fort through a bridge over an old river channel, now a city road. The palace within the fort complex, located behind the Diwan-i-Am (Hall of Public Audience), comprises a series of richly engraved marble palace pavilions, interconnected by water channels called the ‘Nehr-i-Behishit’ meaning the "Stream of Paradise", the Diwane-i-khas (Private audience hall), several other essential private structures, and also the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque built by Emperor Aurangzeb).|
|07||Churches and Convents of Goa||Velha Goa (Old Goa), Goa, ഇന്ത്യ||015 16th and 18th centuries||234; 1986; (ii)(iv)(vi)||Churches and Convents of Goa are monuments inscribed by UNESCO under the World Heritage List in 1986 as cultural property, under criteria (ii),(iv) and (vi), which were built by the Portuguese colonial rulers of Goa between 16th and 18th centuries. These monuments are mainly in the former capital of Velha Goa. Velha Goa is also known Goem, Pornem Gõy, Adlem Gõi, Old Goa or Saibachem Gõi, where Saib or Goencho Saib refers to Saint Francis Xavier. The most significant of these monuments is the Basilica of Bom Jesus, which enshrines the tomb containing the relics of St. Francis Xavier. These monuments of Goa, known as the "Rome of the Orient," were established by different Catholic religious orders, from 25 November 1510 onwards. There were originally 60 churches of which some of the surviving monuments in the city of Velha Goa are the Saint Catherine's Chapel (where one of the first, probably only besides the Angediva Island, Latin rite mass in Asia, was held on Saint Catherine's feast day- i.e. 25 November 1510), the Church and Convent of Saint Francis of Assisi, the Sé Catedral de Santa Catarina dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria, the Jesuit Borea Jezuchi Bajilika or Basílica do Bom Jesus, Igreja de São Francisco de Assis (also known as Asisachea Sanv Fransiskachi Igorz), the Theatine Igreja da Divina Providência (São Caetano) (also known as San Kaitanachi Igorz or the church of Saint Cajetan and its seminary (resembles Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Rosário (also known as Ruzai Saibinnichi Igorz (Church of Our Lady of the Rosary)) and Igreja de Santo Agostinho (also known as Sanv Agustineachi Igorz (Church of Saint Augustine) (only the belfry stands today and some graves, including the Georgian Orthodox Church Saint, Saint Ketevan, who was also a queen). These monuments were forerunners in establishing an ensemble of the Manueline, Mannerist and Baroque art forms in the Asian region. The monuments are built in laterites and walls plastered with limestone mortar mixed with broken shells. For this reason, the monuments need constant maintenance to prevent deterioration due to monsoon climatic conditions, and thus keep them in good shape.|
|08||Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat||Gujarat, ഇന്ത്യ||015Prehistoric and 8th to 14th centuries||1101; 2004; iii, iv, v, vi||Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is situated in Panchmahal district in Gujarat, ഇന്ത്യ. It was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004 as a cultural site. There is a concentration of largely unexcavated archaeological, historic and living cultural heritage properties cradled in an impressive landscape which includes prehistoric (chalcolithic) sites, a hill fortress of an early Hindu capital, and remains of the 16th-century capital of the state of Gujarat. The site also includes, among other vestiges, fortifications, palaces, religious buildings, residential precincts, agricultural structures and water installations, from the 8th to the 14th centuries. The Kalikamata Temple & Jain Temple on top of the Pavagadh Hill is considered to be an important shrine, attracting large numbers of pilgrims throughout the year. The site is the only complete and unchanged Islamic pre-Mughal city.|
|09||Group of Monuments at Hampi||Ballari district, Karnataka, ഇന്ത്യ||01514th and 16th centuries||241 ; 1986; (i)(iii)(iv)||The Group of Monuments at Hampi comprise a sombre but ostentatious Hampi town, on the banks of the river Tungabhadra in Karnataka. Hampi subsumes the ruins of Vijayanagara, which was the former capital of the powerful Vijayanagara Empire. Dravidian temples and palaces abound in Hampi. These won the admiration of travellers between the 14th and 16th centuries. Hampi, as an important Hindu religious centre, has the Virupaksha Temple (different from Pattadakal's Virupaksha Temple) and several other monuments, which are part of the cultural heritage site inscribed under category (i), (iii) and (iv) in the UNESCO World Heritage List.|
|10||Group of Monuments at Pattadakal||Bagalkot District, Karnataka, ഇന്ത്യ||015 8th century||239 ; 1987; (iii)(iv)||The Group of monuments in Pattadakal designated under UNESCO World Heritage List, in 1987, cover a remarkable series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary in northern Karnataka. In this group of temples, the Virupaksha Temple, built c. 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her husband's (King Vikramaditya II) victory over the Pallava kings from the south, is considered the most outstanding architectural edifice (This is different from the Virupaksha Temple at Hampi.) These are a remarkable combination of temples built by the Chalukya Dynasty in the 6th to 8th century at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal, the latter city was known as the "Crown Rubies". The temples represent a remarkable fusion of the architectural features of northern (Nagara) and southern (dravida) ഇന്ത്യ. Pattadakal is considered a Hindu holy city and within the heritage complex are eight temples dedicated to Shiva, a ninth shaivite sanctuary called the Papanatha Temple, and a Jain Narayana temple.|
|11||Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh||Madhya Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||0152nd and 1st centuries BC to the 12th century AD||524; 1989; (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)||Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, located 45 കിലോമീറ്റർ (28 mi) from Bhopal in the ഇന്ത്യn state of Madhya Pradesh are a group of Buddhist monuments dated between 200 BC and 100 BC. The site, however, has been conjectured to have been developed in the 3rd century BC, when Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire ruled. The principal monument is Stupa 1 dated to the 2nd century and 1st century BC. These Buddhist sanctuaries were active Buddhist religious monuments, which flourished till the 12th century. The sanctuary has a plethora of monolithic pillars, palaces, temples and monasteries in different status of preservation. It was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on January 24, 1989 for its unique cultural importance. It was discovered only in 1818 in a deserted state of preservation. Archaeological excavations undertaken thereafter revealed 50 unique monuments.|
|12||Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh||Madhya Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||01530,000 years||925; 2003; (iii) (v)||Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka described in the UNESCO Inscription as "the site complex … a magnificent repository of rock paintings within natural rock shelters" is located in the foothills of the Vindhya range of hills in the Central ഇന്ത്യn state of Madhya Pradesh. It is spread in sandstone formations extending over an area of 1893 ha with a buffer zone 10,280 hectare (25,400 acre). The rock shelters, discovered only in 1957, comprise a group of "five clusters of rock shelters" with paintings that are inferred to date from the "Mesolithic period right through to the Historical period", with the 21 villages surrounding them reflecting the traditions displayed in the rock paintings. The unique rock art has been discovered in 400 painted shelters spread over an area of 1,892 ha amidst dense forest with high diversity of flora and fauna, with some of the shelters dated from 100,000 BC (Late Acheulian) to 1000 AD. It was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2003 as a unique cultural property representing a convergence displayed in the art form between the people and the landscape with links to the hunting gathering economy of the past.|
|13||Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh||Madhya Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||015 950 AD to 1050 AD||240; 1986; (i) (iii)||Khajuraho Group of Monuments attributed to the Chandela dynasty which, under sovereignty of Gurjar Pratihars reached its glory. The ensemble of monuments that have survived belong to the Hindu and Jain Religious practices with striking fusion of sculpture and architecture; the best example of this outstanding feature is seen in the Kandariya Temple. Of the 85 temples built, only 22 temples have survived in an area of 6 km2, which represents the Chandela period of the 10th century. Located in the ഇന്ത്യn state of Madhya Pradesh, it was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, a cultural property on October 15, 1982 for its unique original artistic creation and proof of the Chandela Culture that existed prior to the Muslim invasion of ഇന്ത്യ in the early 12th century.|
|14||Ajanta Caves||Maharashtra, ഇന്ത്യ||015 2nd century BC to the 6th century||242; 1983; i, ii, iii, vi||Ajanta Caves listed under UNESCO World Heritage as a cultural heritage site, are Buddhist caves that were built in two phases, the first phase was from the 2nd century BC. In the second phase, further additions were made during the 5th and 6th centuries AD of the Gupta period. The caves depict richly decorated paintings, frescoes, which are reminiscent of the Sigiriya paintings in Sri Lanka and sculptures. As a whole, there are 31 rock-cut cave monuments which are unique representations of the religious art of Buddhism.|
|15||Ellora Caves||Maharashtra, ഇന്ത്യ||015 600 to 1000 AD||243; 1983; (i)(iii)(vi)||Ellora Caves also known as Ellora Complex are a cultural mix of religious arts of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. These are 34 monasteries and temples sculpted contiguously into rock walls of a high basalt cliff, which are seen along a length of 2 കിലോമീറ്റർ (1.2 mi). Dated to 600 to 1000 AD, they are a reflection of artistic creation of the ancient civilization of ഇന്ത്യ. This cultural property has been inscribed under the UNESCO World Heritage List.|
|16||Elephanta Caves||Maharashtra, ഇന്ത്യ||015 5th to 8th centuries||244rev; 1987; (i)(iii)||The Elephanta Caves are a network of sculpted caves located on Elephanta Island, or Gharapuri (literally "the city of caves") in Mumbai Harbour, 10 കിലോമീറ്റർ (33,000 അടി) to the east of the city of Mumbai. The island, located on an arm of the Arabian Sea, consists of two groups of caves — the first is a large group of five Hindu caves, the second, a smaller group of two Buddhist caves. The Hindu caves contain rock cut stone sculptures, representing the Shaiva Hindu sect, dedicated to the god Shiva. The rock-cut architecture of the caves is dated to between the 5th and 8th centuries, although the identity of the original builders is still a subject of debate. The caves are hewn from solid basalt rock. Renovated in the 1970s, the caves were designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987 to preserve the artwork.|
|17||Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)||Maharashtra, ഇന്ത്യ||015 1887–1888||945rev; 2004; (ii)(iv)||Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is a historic railway station in Mumbai, which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. It is one of the busiest railway stations in ഇന്ത്യ, and serves Central Railway trains terminating in Mumbai as well as the Mumbai Suburban Railway. The station was designed by Frederick William Stevens, a consulting architect in 1887–1888. It took ten years to complete and was named "Victoria Terminus" in honour of the Queen and Empress Victoria; it was opened on the date of her Golden Jubilee in 1887. This famous architectural landmark in Gothic style was built as the headquarters of the Great ഇന്ത്യn Peninsular Railway. In 1996, in response to demands by the Shiv Sena and in keeping with the policy of renaming locations with ഇന്ത്യn names, the station was renamed by the state government after Chatrapati Shivaji, the famed 17th-century Maratha king. On 2 July 2004, the station was nominated as a World Heritage Site by the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO.|
|18||Sun Temple, Konârak||Puri District, Orissa, ഇന്ത്യ||01513th-century||246; 1984;(i)(iii)(vi)||Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple (also known as the "Black Pagoda"), at Konark, in Orissa. Located on the east coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Mahanadi Delta, it is built in the form of the chariot of Surya (Arka), the sun god with 24 wheels, and is heavily decorated with symbolic stone carvings and led by a team of six horses. It was constructed from oxidizing weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is one of the most renowned temples in ഇന്ത്യ and is a World Heritage Site inscribed in 1984 as cultural property under categories (i), (iii) and (vi).|
|19||Keoladeo National Park||Bharatpur, Rajasthan, ഇന്ത്യ||015 1981||340; 1985; (x)||Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur is located within the Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest Biogeographical Province. It extends over an area of 2,783 hectare (6,880 acre). It was declared a national park in 1982. Earlier to this, in 1900, it was a duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajasof Bharatpur, then became a bird sanctuary in 1956, with the Maharajas exercising shooting rights till 1972, and was recorded as a Ramsar Wetland site, in 1981. It was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 under category (x), as a natural property. The area of the wetland of the park shrinks to 1,000 hectare (2,500 acre) during most part of the year. It has a human-built environment created partly by embankments dividing the area into 10 units, and has sluice controlled arrangement to maintain the water level. It is famous for 364 species of wintering birds that flock in large numbers, arriving from distant countries of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia. It is surrounded by 17 villages and the Bharatpur city.|
|20||Jantar Mantar, Jaipur||Jaipur, Rajasthan, ഇന്ത്യ||015 1727 and 1734||1338; 2010; (iii)(iv)||The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is a collection of architectural astronomical instruments, built by Maharaja (King) Jai Singh II at his then new capital of Jaipur between 1727 and 1734. It is modelled after the one that he had built at the Mughal capital of Delhi. He had constructed a total of five such facilities at different locations, including the ones at Delhi and Jaipur. The Jaipur observatory is the largest and best preserved of these and has a set of some 20 main fixed instruments built in masonry. It has been inscribed as cultural property on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an expression of the astronomical skills and cosmological concepts of the court of a scholarly prince at the end of the Mughal period."|
|21||Great Living Chola Temples||Brihadeeswarar temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ||01511th and 12th century||250bis; 1987; (ii)(iii)||The Great Living Chola Temples, built by kings of the Chola Empire stretched over all of Tamil Nadu. This cultural heritage site includes three great temples of 11th and 12th centuries namely, the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. The Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram, built by Rajendra I, was completed in 1035. Its 53 മീറ്റർ (174 അടി) vimana (sanctum tower) has recessed corners and a graceful upward curving movement, contrasting with the straight and severe tower at Thanjavur. The Airavatesvara temple complex, built by Rajaraja II, at Darasuram features a 24 മീറ്റർ (79 അടി) vimana and a stone image of Shiva. The temples testify to the brilliant achievements of the Chola in architecture, sculpture, painting and bronze casting. The site was inscribed under UNESCO World Heritage List in 1987 as Cultural heritage under criteria (ii) and (iii).|
|Airavateshwarar Temple, Darasuram, Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ|
|Brihadeeswarar Temple, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ|
|22||Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram||Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ||0157th and 8th centuries||249; 1984; (i)(ii)(iii)(vi)||The Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, in Tamil Nadu, about 58 km from Chennai, were built by the Pallava kings in the 7th and 8th centuries. The town is said to have gained prominence under the rule of Mamalla. These monuments have been carved out of rock along the Coromandel coast. The temple town has approximately forty monuments, including the largest open-air bas-relief in the world. It was inscribed under the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1984 as a cultural heritage under categories (i)(ii)(iii)(vi). The monuments inscribed are the Ratha Temples: Temples in the form of chariots, Mandapas, 11 Cave sanctuaries covered with bas-reliefs, rock relief of Descent of the Ganges, which is the largest open air Rock relief also known as Arjuna's Penance or Bhagiratha's Penance.|
|23||Agra Fort, Uttar Pradesh||Uttar Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||015 16th century||251; 1983; iii||Agra Fort, also known as the Red Fort of Agra, which represented Mughal opulence and power as the centre piece of their empire was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982, under Category iii as a cultural monument. The fortress located on the right bank of the Yamuna River, built in red sandstone, covering a length of 2.5 കിലോമീറ്റർ (1.6 mi) and surrounded by a moat, encloses several palaces, towers and mosques. These were built from the 16th century onwards till the early 18th century, starting with Emperor Akbar's reign in the 16th century to that of Aurangzeb in the early part of the 18th century, including the contributions made during the reign of Jahangir and Shahjahan of the Moghul Rule in ഇന്ത്യ; the impressive structures built within the precincts of the fort are the Khas Mahal, the Shish Mahal, Muhamman Burje (an octagonal tower), Diwan-i-Khas (1637), Diwan-i-Am, white marble mosque or the Pearl Mosque (built during 1646–1653) and the Nagina Masjid (1658–1707). These monuments are remarkable for the fusion of Persian art of the Timurid and the ഇന്ത്യn art form. It is very close to the famous Taj Mahal with a buffer zone separating the two monuments.|
|24||Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh||Uttar Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||015 16th century||255; 1986; ii,iii,iv||Fatehpur Sikri, "the City of Victory," was built during the second half of the 16th century by the Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556–1605). It was the capital of the Empire and seat of the grand Mughal court, but only for 14 years. Despite bearing exceptional testimony to the Mughal civilization at the end of the 16th century, it had to be abandoned due to the twin reasons of lack of water and unrest in north-west ഇന്ത്യ, leading the emperor to shift the capital to Lahore. Akbar decided to construct it in 1571, on the same site where the birth of his son, the future Emperor Jahangir, was predicted by the wise saint Shaikh Salim Chisti (1480–1572). The work, supervised by the great Mughal himself, was completed in 1573. The complex of monuments and temples, all uniformly in Mughal architectural style, includes one of the largest mosques in ഇന്ത്യ, the Jama Masjid, the Buland Darwaza, the Panch Mahal, and the Tomb of Salim Chishti. The English traveller Ralph Fitch considered the city in 1585 as 'considerably larger than London and more populous.' Its form and layout strongly influenced the evolution of ഇന്ത്യn town planning, notably at Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi). The city has numerous other palaces, public buildings and mosques, as well as living areas for the court, the army, servants of the king and for an entire population whose history has not been recorded.|
|25||Taj Mahal, Uttar Pradesh||Uttar Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||015 17th century||252; 1983;i||Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World is a mausoleum – a funerary mosque. It was built by Emperor Shahjahan in memory of his third wife Begum Mumtaz Mahal who had died in 1631. It is a large edifice made in white marble in typical Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Islamic and ഇന്ത്യn architectural styles. This much acclaimed masterpiece was built over a 16-year period between 1631 and 1648 under the Chief Architect Ustad Ahmad Lahauri supported by several thousand artisans under the guidance of an Imperial Committee. It was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983, under Category i, as a cultural property/monument. It is set amidst vast Mughal Gardens, which cover 17 hectare (42 acre) of land on the right bank of the Yamuna River. It has an octagonal layout marked by four exclusive minarets at four corners with a pristine elevation of a central bulbous dome below which the tombs are laid in an underground chamber. Calligraphic inscriptions in-crusted in polychromatic pierra dura, decorative bands and floral arabesques glorify the monument's graphic beauty and provide a picture perfect impression to the viewers.|
|26||Mountain Railways of ഇന്ത്യ||Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (1999), Darjeeling, West Bengal, ഇന്ത്യ||01519th and early 20th centuries||944ter; 1999, 2005, 2008; (ii)(iv)||The Mountain Railways of ഇന്ത്യ represents a collective listing of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway and the Kalka-Shimla Railway under the UNESCO World Heritage Site. However, the Mountain Railways of ഇന്ത്യ are five railway lines built in the mountains of ഇന്ത്യ in the 19th and early 20th centuries, during the British Raj, which are run even today by the ഇന്ത്യn Railways. Three out of these five railways, the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (1881), the Kalka-Shimla Railway (1898) and the Kangra Valley Railway (1924), are located in the rugged hill regions of the Himalayas of Northern ഇന്ത്യ and the other two are much further south in the Western Ghats; the Nilgiri Mountain Railway in Southern ഇന്ത്യ, and the Matheran Hill Railway in Maharashtra. The World Heritage UNESCO recognition to three of the five Mountain Railways of ഇന്ത്യ has been stated as for being "outstanding examples of bold, ingenious engineering solutions for the problem of establishing an effective rail link through a rugged, mountainous terrain. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was recognised first in 1999, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway followed suite as an extension to the site in 2005, and in 2008 the Kalka–Shimla Railway was further added as an extension; and the three together have been titled as Mountain Railways of ഇന്ത്യ under Criteria: ii, iv under the region in the Asia-Pacific. The claims of the Matheran Hill Railway, the fourth hill line, are pending acceptance by the international body.|
|Nilgiri Mountain Railway (2005) Ooty, Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ|
|Kalka-Shimla Railway, Himachal Pradesh (2008)|
|27||Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks||Chamoli District, Uttarakhand, ഇന്ത്യ||0151939 and 1982||335bis; 1988, 2005 ;(vii),(x)||Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks are nestled high in West Himalaya. Valley of Flowers National Park is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty. It is located in the Garhwal Himalaya of Chamoli District of Uttarakhand. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep. The gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park. Together, they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya. The park stretches over an expanse of 87.5 കി.m2 (33.8 sq mi). It was established as a national park on 6 November 1982. However, it was initially established as a game sanctuary on 7 January 1939. It was inscribed under the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1988 with extension in 2005 under category (vii) and (x). Together, they comprise the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, which is on the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004.|
|28||Sundarbans National Park||West Bengal (ഇന്ത്യ)||015 1939 and 1982||452; 1987 ; (ix) and (x)||The Sundarbans National Park, the largest estuarine mangrove forest in the world is a national park, tiger reserve, UNESCO World Heritage Site and a biosphere reserve located in the Sundarbans Ganges river delta bordering the Bay of Bengal, in West Bengal. It is also on the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves. The Sundarbans as a whole encompasses 10,000 കി.m2 (3,900 sq mi) of land and water, about 5,980 കി.m2 (2,310 sq mi) in ഇന്ത്യ and the balance is in Bangladesh. It is integral to the world's largest delta of 80,000 km2 formed from sediments deposited by the three great rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna, which confluence in the Bengal Basin. The entire basin is traversed by a complex network of interconnecting waterways. Though, the history of protection in the area of ഇന്ത്യn part of the Sundarbans dates back to 1878, it was declared as the core area of Sundarbans Tiger Reserve in 1973 and a wildlife sanctuary in 1977 of 133,000-hectare core area within the 258,500 hectare (639,000 acre) Sundarbans Tiger Reserve. On May 4, 1984 it was declared a National Park. It was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1987 as a natural property under category (ix) and (x). This region is densely covered by mangrove forests, and is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger. It is also home to a variety of bird, reptile and invertebrate species, including the salt-water crocodile.|
|29||Western Ghats||Agasthyamalai Sub-Cluster||2012||Western Ghats, also known as the Sahyadri Mountains, a mountain range along the western side of ഇന്ത്യ and one of the world’s ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" (sub cluster nomination) A total of thirty nine properties (including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests) were designated as world heritage sites – twenty in the state of Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.|
|Talakaveri Sub-Cluster (five properties)|
|Kudremukh Sub-Cluster (five properties)|
|30||Hill Forts of Rajasthan||Chittorgarh||7th to 16th centuries||247; 2013;(ii)(iii)||Hill Forts of Rajasthan, are a series of sites located on rocky outcrops of the Aravallis mountain range in Rajasthan. They represent a typology of Rajput military hill architecture, a style characterized by its mountain peak settings, utilizing the defensive properties of the terrain. These hill forts in Rajasthan represent Rajput military strongholds across a vast range of geographical and cultural zones.It represents number of hill forts and is said to express the development of Rajput defensive architecture. examples of Rajput military architecture. Rajput forts are well known for their defensive architecture. They enclose large territories and even complete villages in walled compounds. The property consists of Chittorgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambore Fort, Gagron Fort, Amber Fort, Jaisalmer Fort. These fort complex includes palaces, Hindu and Jain temples, urban centers and trading centers. Due to the variety of built structures in each hill fort, only the most significant elements of each complex are described.|
|31||Rani ki vav (The Queen's Stepwell)||Patan, Gujarat, ഇന്ത്യ||11th century AD||2014||Rani ki vav (The Queen's Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat, is a famous stepwell It is famous for its size and sculpture. The length of Rani ki Vav is more than 64m long, 20m wide & 27m deep and there are more than 500 sculptures of god. Most of the sculptures are in devotion to Vishnu, in the forms of Dus-Avatars Kalki, Rama, Mahisasurmardini, Narsinh, Vaman, Varahi and others representing their return to the world. Nagkanya, Yogini beautiful women – Apsara showcasing 16 different styles of make-up to look more attractive called Solah-shringar.|
|32||Great Himalayan National Park||Himachal Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||Great Himalayan National Park at Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, is characterized by high alpine peaks, alpine meadows and riverine forests. The 90,540 ha property includes the upper mountain glacial and snow melt water source origins of several rivers, and the catchments of water supplies that are vital to millions of downstream users. The GHNPCA protects the monsoon-affected forests and alpine meadows of the Himalayan front ranges. It is part of the Himalaya biodiversity hotspot and includes 25 forest types along with a rich assemblage of fauna species, several of which are threatened. This gives the site outstanding significance for biodiversity conservation.|
|33||Nalanda||ബീഹാർ, ഇന്ത്യ||5th to 12th centuries||2016||The Nalanda Mahavihara site is in the State of ബീഹാർ, in north-eastern ഇന്ത്യ. It comprises the archaeological remains of a monastic and scholastic institution dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. It includes stupas, shrines, viharas (residential and educational buildings) and important art works in stucco, stone and metal. Nalanda stands out as the most ancient university of the ഇന്ത്യn Subcontinent. It engaged in the organized transmission of knowledge over an uninterrupted period of 800 years. The historical development of the site testifies to the development of Buddhism into a religion and the flourishing of monastic and educational traditions.|
|34||Khangchendzonga National Park||Sikkim, ഇന്ത്യ||2016||Located at the heart of the Himalayan range in northern ഇന്ത്യ (State of Sikkim), the Khangchendzonga National Park includes a unique diversity of plains, valleys, lakes, glaciers and spectacular, snow-capped mountains covered with ancient forests, including the world’s third highest peak, Mount Khangchendzonga.|
|35||The Architectural Work Of Le Corbusier||Chandigarh, ഇന്ത്യ||20th century||2016||Chosen from the work of Le Corbusier, the 17 sites comprising this transnational serial property are spread over seven countries. Urban and Architectural Work of Le Corbusier in Chandigarh, is home to numerous architectural projects of Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew Nowicki and Albert Mayer|
|36||Historic City of Ahmedabad|
|37||The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai||മഹാരാഷ്ട്ര||2018||മുംബൈ നഗരത്തിൽ സ്ഥിതിചെയ്യുന്ന വികോടിയൻ, ആർട്ട് ഡെക്കോ ശൈലിയിലുള്ള കെട്ടിടങ്ങളുടെ സഞ്ചയമാണ് ഇത്. ബോംബേ ഹൈകോർട്ട്, രാജാഭായി ക്ലോക്ക് ടവർ, ഇറോസ് സിനിമ, മുംബൈ യൂണിവേർസിറ്റി എന്നിവ അവയിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്നു|
പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രങ്ങൾ സംസ്ഥാനം തിരിച്ച്[തിരുത്തുക]
സംസ്ഥാനമനുസരിച്ചുള്ള പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രങ്ങളുടെ എണ്ണം പട്ടികയിൽ കാണിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു.
ലോകപൈതൃകപട്ടികയിൽ ഇടം പിടിച്ച 35 പൈതൃകകേന്ദ്രങ്ങൾക്കു പുറമെ, യുനെസ്കോ സമിതിയുടെ അംഗീകാരം ലഭിക്കാനിടയുള്ള ഒരു സാധ്യതാപട്ടികയും ഇന്ത്യ പരിപാലിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. ഇത്തരത്തിൽ പട്ടികയിൽ പരിപാലിക്കുന്നത് ലോകപൈതൃകപട്ടികയിൽ ഇടം നേടുന്നതിനുള്ള ഒരു ഉപാധിയും കൂടിയാണ്.
|01||Temples at Bishnupur||Bishnupur, West Bengal, ഇന്ത്യ||1998||1600–1758 AD||West Bengal is famous for its terracotta temples built in the 17th and 18th centuries and the balucheri sarees|
|02||Mattancherry Palace||Mattancherry, Kochi, Kerala, ഇന്ത്യ||1998||1555 AD||Mattancherry Palace, also known as the Dutch Palace, in Mattancherry, Kochi, Kerala features Kerala murals depicting Hindu temple art, portraits and exhibits of the rajas of Kochi. (1998)|
|03||Mandu, Madhya Pradesh Group of Monuments||Mandu, Madhya Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||1998||10th century AD||Mandu, Madhya Pradesh Group of Monuments are in the fortress town on a rocky outcrop about 100 കി.മീ (62 mi) from Indore, and are celebrated for their fine architecture|
|04||Ancient Buddhist Site in Sarnath||Sarnath, Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||1998||500 CE||Ancient Buddhist Site in Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. (1998)|
|05||Sri Harimandir Sahib (The "Golden Temple")||Amritsar, Punjab, ഇന്ത്യ||2004||August 1604||Sri Harimandir Sahib (The "Golden Temple") in Amritsar, Punjab, is the holiest shrine in Sikhism|
|06||River Island of Majuli||Brahmaputra River, Assam, ഇന്ത്യ||2004||River Island of Majuli in midstream of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, it is the largest river island in the world.|
|07||Namdapha National Park||Arunachal Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||2006||This is the largest protected area in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot is located in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast ഇന്ത്യ|
|08||Wild Ass Sanctuary||Kutchh, Gujarat, ഇന്ത്യ||2006||Wild Ass Sanctuary, largest wildlife sanctuary in ഇന്ത്യ is known for the endangered wild ass sub-species of ഇന്ത്യn wild ass in Little Rann of Kutch|
|09||Bhitarkanika Conservation Area||Orissa, ഇന്ത്യ||2009||A mangrove wetland in Orissa|
|10||Neora Valley National Park||Darjeeling District, West Bengal, ഇന്ത്യ||2009||This is one of the richest biological zones in the entire Northeast situated in the Kalimpong subdivision under Darjeeling District in West Bengal|
|11||Desert National Park||Rajasthan, ഇന്ത്യ||2009||This is an example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert|
|12||Mughal Gardens in Jammu and Kashmir||Chashma Shahi, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, ഇന്ത്യ||2010||1619–1650 AD||There are six gardens. They are Chashma Shahi, Shalimar Bagh, Pari Mahal, Verinag Garden, Achabal Gardens and Nishat Bagh|
|Shalimar Bagh, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, ഇന്ത്യ|
|Verinag Garden, Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, ഇന്ത്യ|
|Pari Mahal, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, ഇന്ത്യ|
|Achabal Gardens, Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, ഇന്ത്യ|
|Nishat Bagh, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, ഇന്ത്യ|
|13||Silk Road Sites in ഇന്ത്യ||ബീഹാർ, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Puducherry, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in ഇന്ത്യ||2010||Around 114 BC – 1450s||This is part of the extensive interconnected network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, as well as North and Northeast Africa and Europe|
|14||Santiniketan||Shantiniketan, West Bengal, ഇന്ത്യ||2010||1862||Santiniketan made famous by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, whose vision became the present university town Visva-Bharati University|
|15||Ahmedabad||Gujarat, ഇന്ത്യ||2011||11th century||The historic and most important city of the state of Gujarat in ഇന്ത്യ- nominated for World Heritage City status|
|16||Delhi||NCT Delhi, ഇന്ത്യ||2012||6th century BC||ഇന്ത്യ's historic national Capital- nominated for World Heritage City status|
|17||The Qutb Shahi Monuments of Hyderabad||Hyderabad, ഇന്ത്യ||2011||1594||This is a collection of the Qutb Shahi Monuments in and around Hyderabad city. They are Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar, Char Kaman and Taramati Baradari|
|18||The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai||Mumbai, ഇന്ത്യ||2012||1862||This is acollection of the Victorian Gothic buildings and Art Deco buildings. They are Bombay High Court, Rajabai Clock Tower, Eros Cinema and University of Mumbai|
|19||Apatani Cultural Landscape||Arunachal Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||2014|
|20||Archaeological remains of Lothal||Gujarat, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||3700 BCE.||It is one of the most prominent city of the ancient Indus valley civilisation, discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of ഇന്ത്യ (ASI). Lothal's dock—the world's earliest known—connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river.).|
|21||Bahá'í House of Worship||New Delhi, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||24 December 1986|
|22||Cellular Jail||Andaman Islands, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||1906 AD||Historic Cellular Jail in Port Blair was used by the British to exile political prisoners during the struggle for ഇന്ത്യ's independence to the remote archipelago. Presently, the jail complex serves as a national memorial monument.|
|23||Chettinad, Village Clusters of the Tamil Merchants||Chettinad, Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ||2014|
|24||Chilika Lake||Odisha, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||It is the largest coastal lagoon in ഇന്ത്യ and the second largest lagoon in the world.|
|25||Monuments and Forts of the Deccan Sultanate||Karnataka (Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur) and Telangana (Hyderabad), ഇന്ത്യ||2014||1656|
|26||Ekamra Kshetra – The Temple City||Bhubaneswar, Odisha, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||3rd century BCE||Bhubaneswar is famous for Kalinga Style temples and Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, Bhubaneswar got the name Ekamra Kshetra as Lingaraj, deity of Lingaraja Temple, is believed to be originally under a mango tree (Ekamra), according to Ekamra Purana. Bhubaneswar is considered as pilgrimage site by Shaivite, Buddhist and Jain.|
|27||Iconic Saree Weaving Clusters of ഇന്ത്യ||ഇന്ത്യ||2014|
|28||Padmanabhapuram Palace||Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||1601 AD||Padmanabhapuram Palace is located in the Kanyakumari district , Tamil Nadu but it is owned and controlled by Kerala Govt.|
|29||Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala||Karnataka (Belur and Halebidu), ഇന്ത്യ||2014||1113–1268 AD||Group of 25 Jain and Hindu temples. built in 12th and 13th century AD by Hoysala Emperors.|
|30||Monuments of Srirangapatna Island Town||Karnataka, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||9th–18th century||Group of structures including Ranganatha Swamy Temple, Tipu Sultan's palace, Tipu Sultan's Gumbaz, Garrison cemetery, Scott's Bungalow, Srirangapatna Fort, Bailey's Dungeon, Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary.|
|31||Narcondam Island||Andaman and Nicobar islands, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||It is a small volcanic island located in the Andaman Sea. Famous for endangered Narcondam hornbill that is endemic to the island.|
|32||The Neolithic Settlement of Burzahom||Jammu & Kashmir, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||3000 BC to 1000 BC||Prehistoric occupational culture of Neolithic era, Megalithic era and early Modern Period|
|33||Thembang Fortified Village||Arunachal Pradesh, ഇന്ത്യ||2014|
|34||The Glorious Kakatiya Temples and Gateways||Warangal, Telangana, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||1163 AD||This is a collection of the Kakatiya era Gateways and Temples. They are Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Warangal Fort, Ramappa Temple and Thousand Pillar Temple.|
|35||Sites of Satyagraha, ഇന്ത്യ’s non-violent freedom movement||ഇന്ത്യ||2014||Satyagraha loosely translated as "insistence on truth" generally known as nonviolent resistance, was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi for ഇന്ത്യn independence movement. Satyagraha theory influenced Nelson Mandela's struggle in South Africa under apartheid, Martin Luther King Jr.'s and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements.|
|36||Sites along the Uttarapath, Badshahi Sadak, Sadak-e-Azam, Grand Trunk Road||ഇന്ത്യ||2015||Antiquity – present||It is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads.|
|37||Moidams – the Mound-Burial system of the Ahom Dynasty||Assam, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||Those are tumuli of the royalty and aristocracy of the medieval Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826) in Assam.|
|38||Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam||Srirangam, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||10th century AD|
|39||Dholavira: A Harappan City||Gujarat, ഇന്ത്യ||2014||2650 BCE||Ancient Dholavira, archaeological site in Kutch District contains ruins of ancient Indus Valley Civilization city, it is one of the largest Harappan archaeological sites.|
|40||Evolution of Temple Architecture – Aihole-Badami-Pattadakal||Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal in Karnataka, ഇന്ത്യ||2015||450 A.D.||Cradle of ഇന്ത്യn rock cut architecture|
|41||Jaipur||Jaipur, Rajasthan||2015||18 November 1727||ഇന്ത്യ's historic city and capital city of state of Rajasthan- nominated for World Heritage City status. Famous for palaces and Forts.|
|42||Cold Desert Cultural Landscape of ഇന്ത്യ||Ladakh, ഇന്ത്യ||2015||Much of it being over an altitude of 3,000 m (9,800 ft).|
|43||Mountain Railways of ഇന്ത്യ (Extension)||ഇന്ത്യ||2014||1881||The Matheran Hill Railway, Maharashtra and The Kangra Valley Railway, Himachal Pradesh are proposed to be included to the group of already inscribed Mountain Railway Lines.|
|44||Vadakkunnathan Temple||Kerala, ഇന്ത്യ||2012||1,300 years old||Vadakkunnathan Temple is an ancient Shiva Temple situated at Thrissur Kerala.It is famous for Thrissur Pooram|
- "Properties Inscribed on the World heritage List". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "World Heritage Day: Five must-visit sites in India".
- "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് September 21, 2010.
- [മാതൃഭൂമി ഇയർബുക്ക് പ്ലസ് 2013(താൾ -462)]
- NMR added as a World Heritage Site
- "Successful preservation of India's Manas Wildlife Sanctuary enables withdrawal from the List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 21 June 2011.
- "World Heritage Committee Adds Four Sites to the List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 12 May 2011.
- "Cologne Cathedral (Germany), Djoudj Bird Sanctuary (Senegal), Ichkeul National Park (Tunisia), and Hampi (India) removed from List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. 10 July 2006. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 12 May 2011.
- "Nomination to the World heritage List" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "World Heritage List". Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "Kaziranga National Park". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "Manas Wildlife Sanctuary" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "List of World heritage in danger". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "Nomination to the World Heritage List" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "Mahabodhi Temple (India) No.1056rev" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "Humayun's Tomb, Delhi". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "World Heritage List: Humayun's TombNo. 232" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "World Heritage List: Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delh, No. 233" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "Red Fort Complex". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "Red Fort Complex (Delhi) No. 231 rev" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "Churches and Convents of Goa". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Churches and Convents at Goa: World Heritage List N0. 232" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Champaner-Pavagadh (India) No. 1101" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Group of Monuments at Hampi". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Group of Monuments at Hampi" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Group of Monuments at Pattadakal". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Group of Monuments at Pattadakal" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "List of World heritage in danger". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-01.
- "Nomination to the World Heritage List" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "Bhimbetka (India)" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "Kajuraho Group of Monuments". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "Kajuraho Group of Monuments" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "Ajanta Caves, India: Brief Description, UNESCO World Heritage Site". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "UNESCO page – Ancient City of Sigiriya". UNESCO.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-05.
- "Ajanta Caves: Advisory Body Evaluation" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 2. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Ellora Caves , India: Brief Description, UNESCO World Heritage Site". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Ellora Caves: Advisory Body Evaluation" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Elephanta Caves" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Elephanta Caves". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Sun Temple, Konârak". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Sun Temple, Konârak" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Keoladeo National Park". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Keoladeo National Park No.340" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Jantar Mantar, Jaipur". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Jantar Mantar, Jaipur" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-07.
- "Great Living Chola Temples". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Great Living Chola Temples" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "World Heritage List no. 251" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "Agra Fort". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-02.
- "World Heritage List no. 255" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2011-05-16.
- "Fatehpur Sikri". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2011-05-16.
- "Taj Mahal". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "ICOMOS: World Heritage List-253" (PDF). UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-10-03.
- "Mountain Railways of India". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Mountain Railways of India" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Sundarbans National Park". World Heritage: Unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- "Sundarbans National Park" (PDF). Unesco. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-11-06.
- K. S. Sudhi (2012-07-02). "Sci-Tech / Energy & Environment : Western Ghats makes it to World Heritage List". The Hindu. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-01-03.
- PTI Jul 2, 2012, 01.23PM IST (2012-07-02). "UN designates Western Ghats as world heritage site". The Times of India. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-01-03.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "India – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-01-03.
- "Western Ghats". Whc.unesco.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-01-03.
- Clara Lewis, TNN Jul 3, 2012, 04.02AM IST (2012-07-03). "39 sites in Western Ghats get world heritage status". The Times of India. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2013-01-03.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Hill Forts of Rajasthan". Government of Rajasthan. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 19 July 2015.
- "Hill Forts of Rajasthan-UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 21 June 2013.
- Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Hill Forts of Rajastan and Wooden Churches of the Carpathian region inscribed on World Heritage List". whc.unesco.org (ഭാഷ: ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്). ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2016-11-15.
- "World Heritage Sites Rani Ki Vav, Gujarat, India". Nomadline.com. Nomadline. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 5 May 2016.
- "Gujarat's Rani ki Vav added to UNESCO World Heritage site List". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 22 June 2014.
- "India: Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List". Properties submitted on the Tentative List. UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-04-15.
- "Tentative Lists". UNESCO. ശേഖരിച്ചത് April 15, 2014.
- Majuli, River Island. "Largest river island". Guinness World Records. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 6 September 2016.
- "Excavations – Important – Gujarat". Archaeological Survey of India. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 25 October 2011.
- S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 28–29.
- History of Andaman Cellular Jail: Recapture of Andaman Islands to keep Political Prisoners. AndamanCellularJail.org. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- Forest and Environment Department. "Chilika". Wildlife Conservation in Orissa. Govt of Orissa. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2008-12-21.
- "Inventory of wetlands" (PDF). Govt. of India. pp. 314–318. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2008-12-09.
- Foekema (1996), pp5-6
- Foekema (2003), pp66–79, pp87–91
- Cousens (1926), p93
- Hardy (1995), pp317–348
- http://www.gandhifoundation.net/about%20gandhi6.htm "Truth (satya) implies love, and firmness (agraha) engenders and therefore serves as a synonym for force. I thus began to call the Indian movement Satyagraha, that is to say, the Force which is born of Truth and Love or nonviolence, and gave up the use of the phrase "passive resistance", in connection with it, so much so that even in English writing we often avoided it and used instead the word "satyagraha" itself or some other equivalent English phrase."
- Uma Majmudar (2005). Gandhi's pilgrimage of faith: from darkness to light. SUNY Press. p. 138. ISBN 9780791464052.
- http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/525247/satyagraha "Gandhi’s satyagraha became a major tool in the Indian struggle against British imperialism and has since been adopted by protest groups in other countries." Date accessed: 14 September 2010.
- http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9165422 "In this respect Satyagraha or non-violent resistance, as conceived by Gandhiji, has an important lesson for pacifists and war-resisters of the West. Western pacifists have so far proved ineffective because they have thought that war can be resisted by mere propaganda, conscientious objection, and organization for settling disputes." Date accessed: 14 September 2010.
- K. M. Sarkar (1927). The Grand Trunk Road in the Punjab: 1849–1886. Atlantic Publishers & Distri. pp. 2–. GGKEY:GQWKH1K79D6.
- Sircar 1979, p. 64. harv error: no target: CITEREFSircar1979 (help)
- Subramanian, T S (5–18 June 2010). "The rise and fall of a Harappan City". Frontline. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 4 July 2012.CS1 maint: date format (link)
- "Multi-hazard Map of India" (PDF). United Nations Development Program. 2007. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 31 October 2014.
- Rizvi, Janet (1996). Ladakh — Crossroads of High Asia. Oxford University Press.
|വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ World Heritage Sites in India എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്.|