Chișinău

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Chișinău
City
Montaj de imagini Commons a Chișinăului.jpg
Flag of Chișinău
Flag
Official seal of Chișinău
Seal
Chișinău is located in Moldova
Chișinău
Chișinău
Location of Chisinau in Moldova
Chișinău is located in Europe
Chișinău
Chișinău
Chișinău (Europe)
Coordinates: 47°02′00″N 28°51′00″E / 47.03333°N 28.85000°E / 47.03333; 28.85000
Country Moldova
First written mention1436[1]
Government
 • MayorUndecided
Area[2]
 • City123 കി.മീ.2(47 ച മൈ)
 • Metro563.3 കി.മീ.2(217.5 ച മൈ)
Elevation85 മീ(279 അടി)
Population (2014 census)[3]
 • City532
 • Estimate (2017)[4]685
 • Density4/കി.മീ.2(11/ച മൈ)
 • Metro662
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal codeMD-20xx
Area code(s)+373-22
ISO 3166 codeMD-CU
GDP(nominal)[5]2016
 – Total$4 billion
 – Per capita$5,000
Websitewww.chisinau.md
a As the population of the Municipality of Chișinău (which comprises the city of Chișinău and 34 other suburban localities)[6]

Coordinates: 47°0′N 28°55′E / 47.000°N 28.917°E / 47.000; 28.917

View of Chișinău city from orbit.

റിപ്പബ്ലിക് ഓഫ് മൊൾഡോവയുടെ തലസ്ഥാനമാണ് Chișinău (/ˌkɪʃɪˈn/; Romanian: [kiʃiˈnəw] (About this sound ശ്രവിക്കുക)). ( Kishinev എന്നും അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു)(Russian: Кишинёв, tr. Kishinyov),

ഉള്ളടക്കം

പേരുവന്നവഴിയും പേരുകളും[തിരുത്തുക]

ചരിത്രം[തിരുത്തുക]

പ്രധാന ലേഖനങ്ങൾ: History of Chișinău, Timeline of Chișinău
Chișinău, 1889

രണ്ടാം ലോകമഹായുദ്ധം[തിരുത്തുക]

Eternity – a memorial complex dedicated to the soldiers who fell in World War II and the military conflict in Transnistria
Train of Pain - the monument to the victims of communist mass deportations in Moldova
State Art Museum, during the Cold War period
Chișinău at night in 1980
Dacia Boulevard in Botanica District

സോവിയറ്റു കാലം[തിരുത്തുക]

Botanical garden

കാലാവസ്ഥ[തിരുത്തുക]

Chișinău (1981–2010) പ്രദേശത്തെ കാലാവസ്ഥ
മാസം ജനു ഫെബ്രു മാർ ഏപ്രി മേയ് ജൂൺ ജൂലൈ ഓഗ സെപ് ഒക് നവം ഡിസം വർഷം
റെക്കോർഡ് കൂടിയ °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
20.7
(69.3)
25.7
(78.3)
31.6
(88.9)
35.9
(96.6)
37.5
(99.5)
39.4
(102.9)
39.2
(102.6)
37.3
(99.1)
32.6
(90.7)
23.6
(74.5)
18.3
(64.9)
39.4
(102.9)
ശരാശരി കൂടിയ °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
2.6
(36.7)
8.1
(46.6)
15.6
(60.1)
21.9
(71.4)
25.2
(77.4)
27.5
(81.5)
27.2
(81)
21.5
(70.7)
15.2
(59.4)
7.4
(45.3)
2.2
(36)
14.6
(58.3)
പ്രതിദിന മാധ്യം °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.7
(38.7)
10.4
(50.7)
16.5
(61.7)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
21.7
(71.1)
16.3
(61.3)
10.5
(50.9)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
10.2
(50.4)
ശരാശരി താഴ്ന്ന °C (°F) −4.3
(24.3)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.2
(32.4)
6.0
(42.8)
11.6
(52.9)
15.2
(59.4)
17.3
(63.1)
16.9
(62.4)
12.0
(53.6)
6.8
(44.2)
1.5
(34.7)
−3.0
(26.6)
6.4
(43.5)
താഴ്ന്ന റെക്കോർഡ് °C (°F) −28.4
(−19.1)
−28.9
(−20)
−21.1
(−6)
−6.6
(20.1)
−1.1
(30)
3.6
(38.5)
7.8
(46)
5.5
(41.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
−10.8
(12.6)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−28.9
(−20)
മഴ/മഞ്ഞ് mm (inches) 36
(1.42)
31
(1.22)
34
(1.34)
40
(1.57)
48
(1.89)
66
(2.6)
64
(2.52)
56
(2.2)
51
(2.01)
37
(1.46)
38
(1.5)
41
(1.61)
542
(21.34)
ശരാ. മഴ ദിവസങ്ങൾ 8 7 11 13 14 14 12 10 10 11 12 10 132
ശരാ. മഞ്ഞു ദിവസങ്ങൾ 13 13 8 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.4 5 11 51
% ആർദ്രത 82 78 71 63 60 63 62 60 66 73 81 83 70
മാസം സൂര്യപ്രകാശം ലഭിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി മണിക്കൂറുകൾ 75 80 125 187 254 283 299 295 226 169 75 58 2,126
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[7]
ഉറവിടം#2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[8]

മുനിസിപ്പാലിറ്റി[തിരുത്തുക]

നഗരങ്ങൾ/പട്ടണങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Communes[തിരുത്തുക]

ഭരണം[തിരുത്തുക]

Administrative sectors of Chișinău: 1-Centru, 2-Buiucani, 3-Rîșcani, 4-Botanica, 5-Ciocana.


പ്രാദേശിക സർക്കാർ[തിരുത്തുക]

The municipality in its totality elects a mayor and a local council, which then name five pretors, one for each sector. They deal more locally with administrative matters. Each sector claims a part of the city and several suburbs:[9]

ജനസംഖ്യ[തിരുത്തുക]

City of Chișinău
YearPop.±%
1812[10] 7,000—    
1818[10] 10,966+56.7%
1835[10] 34,079+210.8%
1847[10] 43,965+29.0%
1851 58,849+33.9%
1865 94,047+59.8%
1897(c)[11] 1,08,483+15.3%
1912 1,21,000+11.5%
1930(c)[11] 1,14,896−5.0%
1950 1,34,000+16.6%
1963 2,53,500+89.2%
1980 5,19,200+104.8%
1991 6,76,700+30.3%
2004(c)[12] 5,89,446−12.9%
2014(c)[3] 5,32,513−9.7%
2017(e)[13] 6,85,900+28.8%
c-census; e-estimate
Municipality of Chișinău
YearPop.±%
1959 2,58,910—    
1970 4,15,956+60.7%
1979 5,89,140+41.6%
1989 7,70,948+30.9%
2004 7,12,218−7.6%
2014 6,62,836−6.9%
Source: Censuses[3]

According to the results of the last Moldovan census, conducted in May 2014, 532,513 inhabitants live within the Chișinău city limits. This represents a 9.7% drop in the number of residents as opposed to the results of the 2004 Census.

Natural statistics (2015):[14]

Population by sector:

Sector Population (2004 cen.)[14] Population (2015 est.)[14]
Botanica 156,633 220,000
Buiucani 107,744 160,100
Centru 90,494 110,300
Ciocana 101,834 152,000
Rîșcani 132,740 162,493

വർഗ്ഗപരമായ എണ്ണങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Ethnic group1 Population % of total*
Moldovans2 304,816 67.17%
Romanians2 65,573 14.45%
Russians 42,157 9.29%
Ukrainians 26,955 5.94%
Bulgarians 4,810 1.06%
Gagauz 3,085 0.68%
Others 6,398 1.41%
Footnotes:

1Source: 2014 census results
2Since the independence of Moldova, there is an ongoing controversy over whether Romanians and Moldovans are the same ethnic group.

These percentages are for the 469,402 reviewed citizens in the 2014 census that answered the ethnicity question.
An additional estimated 193,434 inhabitants of the Municipality of Chișinău weren't reviewed.

ഭാഷകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

The following table details the population in the Municipality of Chișinău, by native language, as reported in the 2014 Census.

Maternal language1 % of total population
Romanian2 43.4%
Moldovan2 33.0%
Russian 20.8%
Ukrainian 1.7%
Bulgarian 0.4%
Gagauz 0.3%
Others 0.4%
Footnotes:

1Source: 2014 census results
2In Moldova, Romanian and Moldovan languages designate the same language.

മതം[തിരുത്തുക]

Chișinău is the seat of the Moldovan Orthodox Church, as well as of the Metropolis of Bessarabia. The city has multiple churches and synagogues.[15]

നഗരക്കാഴ്ച്ച[തിരുത്തുക]

Panorama of Chișinău

കലാവിരുതുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Apartment buildings in Chișinău

Chișinău's growth plan was developed in the 19th century. In 1836 the construction of the Kishinev Cathedral and its belfry was finished. The belfry was demolished in Soviet times and was rebuilt in 1997. Chișinău also displays a tremendous number of orthodox churches and 19th century buildings around the city such as Ciuflea Monastery or the Transfiguration Church. Much of the city is made from limestone dug from Cricova[എന്ന്?], leaving a famous wine cellar there.

Many modern-style buildings have been built in the city since 1991. There are many office and shopping complexes that are modern, renovated or newly built, including Kentford, SkyTower, and Union Fenosa headquarters. However, the old Soviet-style clusters of living blocks are still an extensive feature of the cityscape.

സംസ്കാരവും വിദ്യാഭ്യാസവും[തിരുത്തുക]

Politics[തിരുത്തുക]

Presidential palace in Chisinau.
Parliament elections results
Year AEI PCRM
2010 54.22% 234,156 40.19% 173,570
July 2009 56.20% 215,443 41.23% 158,034
April 2009 47.99% 176,742 42.43% 153,227

Electoral and political Chișinău given a higher priority for the center-right parties, in principle AEI. PCRM the main opposition party, has a large percentage in the city, but its support base in the city is dwindling.

Elections[തിരുത്തുക]

e • d  Summary of 28 November 2010 Parliament of Moldova election results in Chișinău Municipality
Parties and coalitions Votes % +/−
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 173,570 40.19 −1.04
Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova 122,845 28.44 +11.55
Liberal Party 69,266 16.04 −7.10
Democratic Party of Moldova 35,369 8,19 -2.36
Party Alliance Our Moldova 6,676 1.15 −4.47
Other Party (<1.0%) 24,259 5.59 +3.02
Total (turnout 67.59%) 433,974 100.00


ഗതാഗതം[തിരുത്തുക]

Trolleybus on the street

വിമാനത്താവളം[തിരുത്തുക]

Chișinău International Airport offers connections to major destinations, within Europe and Asia.

The Air Moldova and Fly-One flight operators has their head offices, as well as Wizz-Air has its hub on the grounds of Chișinău International Airport.[16]

റോഡ്[തിരുത്തുക]

The most popular form of internal transport in Moldova is generally the bus.[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്] Although the city has just three main terminals, buses generally serve as the means of transport between cities in and outside of Moldova. Popular destinations include Tiraspol, Odessa (Ukraine), Iași and Bucharest (Romania).

തീവണ്ടി[തിരുത്തുക]

The second most popular form of domestic transportation within Moldova is via railways. The total length of the network managed by Moldovan Railway CFM (as of 2009) is 1,232 kilometers (766 miles). The entire network is single track and is not electrified. The central hub of all railways is Chișinău Central Railway Station. There is another smaller railway station - Revaca located on the city's ends.

Chișinău Railway Station has an international railway terminal with connections to Bucharest, Kiev, Minsk, Odessa, Moscow, Samara, Varna and St. Petersburg. Due to the simmering conflict between Moldova and the unrecognised Transnistria republic the rail traffic towards Ukraine is occasionally stopped.[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്]

പൊതുഗതാഗതം[തിരുത്തുക]

ട്രോളീബസ്സുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

There is wide trolleybus network operating as common public transportation within city. From 1994, Chișinău saw the establishment of new trolleybus lines, as well as an increase in capacity of existing lines, to improve connections between the urban districts. The network comprises 22 trolleybus lines being 246 km (153 mi) in length. Trolleybuses run between 05:00 and 03:00. There are 320 units daily operating in Chișinău. However the requirements are as minimum as 600 units. Trolleybus ticket costs at about 2 lei (ca. $0.11). It is the cheapest method of transport within Chișinău municipality.

ബസ്സുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

There are 29 lines of buses within Chișinău municipality. At each public transportation stops there is attached a schedule for buses and trolleybuses. There are approximately 330 public transportation stops within Chișinău municipality. There is a big lack of buses inside city limits, with only 115 buses operating within Chișinău.[17]

ചെറു ബസ്സുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

In Chișinău and its suburbs, privately operated minibuses known as "rutieras" generally follow the major bus and trolleybus routes and appear more frequently.[18] As of October 2017, there are 1100 units of minibuses operating within Chișinău. Minibuses services are priced the same as buses - 3 lei for a ticket (ca. $0.18).[19]

ഗതാഗതം[തിരുത്തുക]

Traffic jam in Chisinau

The city traffic becomes more congested as each year passes. Nowadays there are about 300,000 cars in the city plus 100,000 transit transports coming to the city each day.[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്] The number of personal transports is expected to reach 550,000 (without transit) by 2025.[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്].

കായികം[തിരുത്തുക]

FC Zimbru Stadium

There are three professional football clubs in Chișinău, all playing in the Divizia Națională (national league): Zimbru, Dacia and Academia. Of the larger public multiuse stadiums in the city is the Stadionul Dinamo (Dinamo Stadium), which has a capacity of 2,692. The Zimbru Stadium, opened in May 2006 with a capacity of 10,500 sitting places, meets all the requirements for holding official international matches, and was the venue for all Moldova's Euro 2008 qualifying games. Currently there are discussions to build a new modern olympic stadium with capacity of circa 25,000 seats, that would meet all international requirements.

പ്രാധാന്യമുള്ള വ്യക്തികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

നാട്ടുകാർ[തിരുത്തുക]

താമസക്കാർ[തിരുത്തുക]

അന്താരാഷ്ട്രബന്ധങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

ഇരട്ടപ്പട്ടണങ്ങളും സഹോദരീനഗരങ്ങളും[തിരുത്തുക]

Chișinău is twinned with:[20]

കുറിപ്പുകളും അവലംബവും[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. Brezianu, Andrei; Spânu, Vlad (2010). The A to Z of Moldova. Scarecrow Press. p. 81. ISBN 9781461672036. Retrieved 26 December 2013. 
  2. Chișinău City Hall. Planul Urbanistic General al Municipiului Chișinău. Press release. ശേഖരിച്ച തീയതി: 20 January 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova (31 March 2017). Principalele rezultate ale RPL 2014. Press release. ശേഖരിച്ച തീയതി: 7 September 2017.
  4. "Populaţia şi procesele demografice". National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  5. http://www.statistica.md/public/files/publicatii_electronice/Chisinau/Anuar_Chisinau_2013.pdf
  6. National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova (31 March 2017). Population by commune, sex and age groups. Press release. ശേഖരിച്ച തീയതി: 7 September 2017.
  7. "Pogoda.ru.net" (Russian ഭാഷയിൽ). Погода и климат. May 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  8. "Kisinev Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  9. Moldovan Law 431-XIII from 19 April 1995 Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, no. 31-32/340, 9 June 1995 (Romanian ഭാഷയിൽ)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "Evoluţia demografică a oraşelor basarabene în prima jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea". Bessarabia.ru. Retrieved 2016-12-17. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Jewish Population in Bessarabia and Transnistria - Geographical". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2016-12-17. 
  12. Statistics, National Bureau of (30 September 2009). "// Population Census 2004". 
  13. "Populatia stabila pe orase si raioane, la 1 ianuarie, 2005-2017" [Permanent population in cities and districts on January 1, 2005-2017]. National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. Retrieved 5 December 2017. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova. Chisinau in cifre. Anuar statistic 2012. Press release.
  15. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; Kaba എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.
  16. "Air Moldova :: Contacts". Airmoldova.md. Retrieved 2016-12-17. 
  17. http://diez.md/2016/09/01/numarul-de-troleibuze-si-autobuze-care-vor-circula-chisinau-fost-majorat/
  18. "Chisinau." Chisinau Infos. World Infos, n.d. Web. 9 November 2016.
  19. "Numărul microbuzelor care circulă pe itinerarele din capitală s-a micșorat cu 600 de unități". Moldpres. 2017-09-25. Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. Retrieved 2017-10-06. 
  20. "Orașe înfrățite (Twin cities of Chișinău) [via WaybackMachine.com]" (Romanian ഭാഷയിൽ). Primăria Municipiului Chișinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  21. Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  22. "Partner und Freundesstädte". Stadt Mannheim (German ഭാഷയിൽ). Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  23. listed on Yerevan Municipality Official Website as Kishinev.
  24. "Yerevan - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
  25. "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (Russian ഭാഷയിൽ). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  26. "Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com]" (Turkish ഭാഷയിൽ). Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi - Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 

അധികവായനയ്ക്ക്[തിരുത്തുക]

പുറത്തേക്കുള്ള കണ്ണികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

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