ഫലകം:Infobox boron

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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Boron, 5B
Boron R105.jpg
boron (β-rhombohedral)[1]
Boron
Pronunciation/ˈbɔːrɒn/ (BOHR-on)
Allotropesα-, β-rhombohedral, β-tetragonal (and more)
Appearanceblack-brown
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(B)[10.80610.821] conventional: 10.81
Boron in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
Atomic number (Z)5
Groupgroup 13 (boron group)
Periodperiod 2
Blockp-block
Element category  Metalloid
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p1
Electrons per shell2, 3
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
Boiling point4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid (at m.p.)2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization508 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity11.087 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−5, −1, +1, +2, +3[2][3] (a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.04
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius192 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of boron
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed of sound thin rod16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionβ form: 5–7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[4]
Thermal conductivity27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity~106 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[5]
Magnetic susceptibility−6.7·10−6 cm3/mol[5]
Mohs hardness~9.5
CAS Number7440-42-8
History
DiscoveryJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[6] (30 June 1808)
First isolationHumphry Davy[7] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of boron
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
10B 20% stable[8]
11B 80% stable[8]
10B content is 19.1–20.3% in natural samples, with the remainder being 11B.[9]
| references
B
data m.p. cat  കാ
in calc from C diff report ref
C 2076
K 2349 2,349* പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: തിരിച്ചറിയാൻ കഴിയാത്ത വിരാമചിഹ്നം "," പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: അപ്രതീക്ഷിതമായ < ഓപ്പറേറ്റർ
F 3769 3,769* പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: തിരിച്ചറിയാൻ കഴിയാത്ത വിരാമചിഹ്നം "," പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: അപ്രതീക്ഷിതമായ < ഓപ്പറേറ്റർ
WD Edit this at Wikidata
input C: 2076, K: 2349, F: 3769
comment
B
data b.p. cat  കാ
in calc from C diff report ref
C 3927
K 4200 4,200* പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: തിരിച്ചറിയാൻ കഴിയാത്ത വിരാമചിഹ്നം "," പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: അപ്രതീക്ഷിതമായ < ഓപ്പറേറ്റർ
F 7101 7,101* പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: തിരിച്ചറിയാൻ കഴിയാത്ത വിരാമചിഹ്നം "," പ്രയോഗരീതിയിൽ പിഴവ്: അപ്രതീക്ഷിതമായ < ഓപ്പറേറ്റർ
WD Edit this at Wikidata
input C: 3927, K: 4200, F: 7101
comment
iso
5
B E
→ H

i'box H

Data sets read by {{Infobox element}}
Name and identifiers
Top image
  image caption
  image alt
Pronunciation
Category (enwiki)
Standard atomic weight
  most stable isotope
Oxidation states
Spectral lines image

References

  1. Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
  2. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF" (PDF). J. Molecular Spectroscopy. 170: 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058.
  3. Melanie Schroeder. "Eigenschaften von borreichen Boriden und Scandium-Aluminium-Oxid-Carbiden" (PDF) (ഭാഷ: ജർമ്മൻ). p. 139.
  4. Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Haynes, William M., ed. (2016). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (97th ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.127. ISBN 9781498754293.
  6. Gay Lussac, J.L. & Thenard, L.J. (1808). "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique". Annales de chimie. 68: 169–174.
  7. Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 99: 39–104. doi:10.1098/rstl.1809.0005.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2008-09-21.
  9. Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters. 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219.

Five of these are named references. They may be cited in the containing article as

  • <ref name="v1" /> for the source Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF
  • <ref name="magnet" /> for the source from Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
  • <ref name="NISTic" /> for the source Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements
  • <ref name="Lussac" /> for the source by Gay-Lussac
  • <ref name="Davy" /> for the source by Davy

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