ഫലകം:Infobox nickel

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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നിക്കൽ,  28Ni
A pitted and lumpy piece of nickel, with the top surface cut flat
General properties
Appearancelustrous, metallic and
silvery with a gold tinge
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)58.6934(4)[1]
നിക്കൽ in the periodic table
[[Hydrogen|Hydrogen [[Helium|Helium
[[Lithium|Lithium [[Beryllium|Beryllium [[Boron|Boron [[Carbon|Carbon [[Nitrogen|Nitrogen [[Oxygen|Oxygen [[Fluorine|Fluorine [[Neon|Neon
[[Sodium|Sodium [[Magnesium|Magnesium [[Aluminium|Aluminium [[Silicon|Silicon [[Phosphorus|Phosphorus [[Sulfur|Sulfur [[Chlorine|Chlorine [[Argon|Argon
[[Potassium|Potassium [[Calcium|Calcium [[Scandium|Scandium [[Titanium|Titanium [[Vanadium|Vanadium [[Chromium|Chromium [[Manganese|Manganese [[Iron|Iron [[Cobalt|Cobalt [[Nickel|Nickel [[Copper|Copper [[Zinc|Zinc [[Gallium|Gallium [[Germanium|Germanium [[Arsenic|Arsenic [[Selenium|Selenium [[Bromine|Bromine [[Krypton|Krypton
[[Rubidium|Rubidium [[Strontium|Strontium [[Yttrium|Yttrium [[Zirconium|Zirconium [[Niobium|Niobium [[Molybdenum|Molybdenum [[Technetium|Technetium [[Ruthenium|Ruthenium [[Rhodium|Rhodium [[Palladium|Palladium [[Silver|Silver [[Cadmium|Cadmium [[Indium|Indium [[Tin|Tin [[Antimony|Antimony [[Tellurium|Tellurium [[Iodine|Iodine [[Xenon|Xenon
[[Caesium|Caesium [[Barium|Barium [[Lanthanum|Lanthanum [[Cerium|Cerium [[Praseodymium|Praseodymium [[Neodymium|Neodymium [[Promethium|Promethium [[Samarium|Samarium [[Europium|Europium [[Gadolinium|Gadolinium [[Terbium|Terbium [[Dysprosium|Dysprosium [[Holmium|Holmium [[Erbium|Erbium [[Thulium|Thulium [[Ytterbium|Ytterbium [[Lutetium|Lutetium [[Hafnium|Hafnium [[Tantalum|Tantalum [[Tungsten|Tungsten [[Rhenium|Rhenium [[Osmium|Osmium [[Iridium|Iridium [[Platinum|Platinum [[Gold|Gold [[Mercury (element)|Mercury (element) [[Thallium|Thallium [[Lead|Lead [[Bismuth|Bismuth [[Polonium|Polonium [[Astatine|Astatine [[Radon|Radon
[[Francium|Francium [[Radium|Radium [[Actinium|Actinium [[Thorium|Thorium [[Protactinium|Protactinium [[Uranium|Uranium [[Neptunium|Neptunium [[Plutonium|Plutonium [[Americium|Americium [[Curium|Curium [[Berkelium|Berkelium [[Californium|Californium [[Einsteinium|Einsteinium [[Fermium|Fermium [[Mendelevium|Mendelevium [[Nobelium|Nobelium [[Lawrencium|Lawrencium [[Rutherfordium|Rutherfordium [[Dubnium|Dubnium [[Seaborgium|Seaborgium [[Bohrium|Bohrium [[Hassium|Hassium [[Meitnerium|Meitnerium [[Darmstadtium|Darmstadtium [[Roentgenium|Roentgenium [[Copernicium|Copernicium [[Nihonium|Nihonium [[Flerovium|Flerovium [[Moscovium|Moscovium [[Livermorium|Livermorium [[Tennessine|Tennessine [[Oganesson|Oganesson
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Ni

Pd
കൊബാൾട്ട്നിക്കൽചെമ്പ്
Atomic number (Z)28
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 4
Blockd-block
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 16, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPഖരം
Melting point1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
Boiling point3186 K ​(2913 °C, ​5275 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.908 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.81 g/cm3
Heat of fusion17.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization377.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.07 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4,[3] (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.91
Ionization energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 135 pm
calculated: 149 pm
Covalent radius121 pm
Van der Waals radius163 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of നിക്കൽ
Other properties
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face centered cubic crystal structure for നിക്കൽ
Speed of sound thin rod4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity69.3 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic
Young's modulus200 GPa
Shear modulus76 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs hardness4.0
Vickers hardness638 MPa
Brinell hardness700 MPa
CAS Number7440-02-0
Main isotopes of നിക്കൽ
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
56Ni syn 6.075 d ε - 56Co
γ 0.158, 0.811 -
58Ni 68.077% 58Ni is stable with 30 neutrons
59Ni syn 76000 y ε - 59Co
60Ni 26.233% 60Ni is stable with 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% 61Ni is stable with 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% 62Ni is stable with 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y β- 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% 64Ni is stable with 36 neutrons
| references
  1. Meija, J.; മറ്റുള്ളവർക്കൊപ്പം. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. Pfirrmann, Stefan; Limberg, Christian; Herwig, Christian; Stößer, Reinhard; Ziemer, Burkhard (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48 (18): 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. PMID 19322853.
  3. Carnes, Matthew; Buccella, Daniela; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Ramirez, Arthur P.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Nuckolls, Colin; Steigerwald, Michael (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48 (2): 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. PMID 19021174.
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