ഒഫ്രിസ്

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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ഒഫ്രിസ്
OphrysApifera.jpg
Bee Orchid
(Ophrys apifera var. aurita)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
(unranked):
(unranked):
Order:
Family:
Subfamily:
Tribe:
Subtribe:
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Genus:
Ophrys

L., 1753
Type species
Ophrys insectifera[1]
L., 1753
Synonyms
  • Arachnites F.W.Schmidt
  • Myodium Salisb.

ഒഫ്രിസ് ജനുസ് ഓർക്കിഡിനി ഉപഗോത്രത്തിൽപ്പെട്ടതും ഓർക്കിഡേസീ കുടുംബത്തിലെ ഓർക്കിഡുകളുടെ ഒരു വലിയ സമൂഹവുമാണ്. യൂറോപ്പ്, വടക്കേ ആഫ്രിക്ക, കാനറി ദ്വീപുകൾ, മിഡിൽ ഈസ്റ്റ് തുർക്ക്മെനിസ്ഥാൻ എന്നിവിടങ്ങളിൽ ഇവ വ്യാപകമായി വ്യാപിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു.[2][3]പ്ലൈനി ദി എൽഡർ (23-79 എ.ഡി.) എഴുതിയ "നാച്വറൽ ഹിസ്റ്ററി" എന്ന പുസ്തകത്തിൽ ഒഫ്രിസ് ഓർക്കിഡിനെക്കുറിച്ച് ആദ്യമായി വിവരിച്ചിരുന്നു.

Ophrys apifera (Bee Orchid)

സ്പീഷീസുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Ophrys bombyliflora (Bumblebee Orchid)
  • Ophrys bombyliflora Link – Bumblebee Orchid - Mediterranean Basin and Canary Islands
  • Ophrys cilicica Schltr. – Cilician Bee-orchid - Turkey, Syria, Iran (note that Cilicia means southern Turkey)
  • Ophrys ferrum-equinum Desf. – Horseshoe Bee-orchid - Albania, Greece, Turkey
    • Ophrys ferrum-equinum subsp. ferrum-equinum - Albania, Greece, Turkey
    • Ophrys ferrum-equinum subsp. gottfriediana (Renz) E.Nelson - Greece
  • Ophrys fuciflora (F.W.Schmidt) Moench – Late Spider-orchid - from Britain to Iraq
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. andria (P.Delforge) Faurh. - Greek islands
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. apulica O.Danesch & E.Danesch - southern Italy including Sicily
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. biancae (Tod.) Faurh. - Sicily
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. bornmuelleri (M.Schulze) B.Willing & E.Willing - Turkey, Cyprus, Greek islands, Syria, Palestine, Israel, Iraq
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. candica E.Nelson ex Soó - southern Italy including Sicily, plus Greece and Turkey
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. chestermanii (J. J. Wood) H. Blatt & W. Wirth - Sardinia
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. elatior (Paulus) R. Engel & Quentin Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. fuciflora - from Britain to Syria
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. grandiflora (H. Fleischm. & Soó) Faurh. - Turkey, Cyprus
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. lacaitae (Lojac.) Soó - Italy, Malta, Croatia
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. oblita (Kreutz, Gügel & W. Hahn) Faurh., H. A. Pedersen & S. G. Christ - Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Israel
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. oxyrrhynchos (Tod.) Soó - southern Italy including Sicily
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. pallidiconi Faurh. - Turkey
    • Ophrys fuciflora subsp. parvimaculata O. Danesch & E. Danesch - Italy
    • Ophrys fuciflora var. ziyaretiana (Kreutz & Ruedi Peter) Faurh. & H. A. Pedersen - Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Israel
Ophrys fusca (Sombre Bee-orchid)
  • Ophrys fusca Link – Sombre Bee-orchid, Dark Bee-orchid - from Portugal to Turkey
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. blitopertha (Paulus & Gack) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen - Turkey, Greek islands
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. cinereophila (Paulus & Gack) Faurh.- Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. fusca - from Portugal to Turkey
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. iricolor (Desf.) K.Richt. - from Portugal to Turkey
    • Ophrys fusca subsp. pallida (Raf.) E. G. Camus in E. G. Camus & A. A. Camus - Sicily, Tunisia, Algeria
  • Ophrys insectifera L. – Fly Orchid - much of Europe from Spain to Russia and Finland
    • Ophrys insectifera nothosubsp. tytecaeana P. Delforge - France
    • Ophrys insectifera subsp. aymoninii Breistr. France, Spain
    • Ophrys insectifera subsp. insectifera - much of Europe from Spain to Russia and Finland
  • Ophrys isaura Renz & Taubenheim - Turkey
  • Ophrys kojurensis Gölz - Iran
  • Ophrys konyana Kreutz & Ruedi Peter - Turkey
  • Ophrys kopetdagensis K.P. Popov & Neshat. - Turkmenistan
  • Ophrys kotschyi H. Fleischm. & Soó – Cyprus Bee-orchid, Kotschy's Bee-orchid - Greece, Cyprus
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. ariadnae (Paulus) Faurh. - Greek islands and mainland
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. cretica (Soó) H.Sund. - Crete and other Greek islands
    • Ophrys kotschyi subsp. kotschyiCyprus
  • Ophrys kreutzii W.Hahn - Turkey
  • Ophrys lepida S. Moingeon & J.-M. Moingeon - Sardinia
  • Ophrys lunulata Parl. - Sicily
Ophrys lutea (Yellow Bee-orchid)
  • Ophrys lutea Cav. – Yellow Bee-orchid - from Portugal and Morocco to Syria
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. aspea (Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers) Faurh. - Tunisia, Libya
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. galilaea (H. Fleischm. & Bornm.) Soó - from Portugal and Morocco to Syria
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. lutea - from Portugal and Morocco to Turkey
    • Ophrys lutea subsp. melena Renz - Greece, Albania
  • Ophrys lycia Renz & Taubenheim - Turkey
  • Ophrys omegaifera H. Fleischm. – Omega Bee-orchid - from Portugal and Morocco to Syria
    • Ophrys omegaifera var. basilissa (C. Alibertis, A. Alibertis & H.R. Reinhard) Faurh - Greece
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. dyris (Maire) Del Prete - Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Balearic Islands
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. fleischmannii (Hayek) Del Prete - Crete and other Greek islands
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. hayekii (H. Fleischm. & Soó) Kreutz - Sicily, Algeria, Tunisia
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. israelitica (H. Baumann & Künkele) G. Morschek & K. Morschek - Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. omegaifera - Turkey, Greek islands
    • Ophrys omegaifera subsp. apollonae or Ophrys apollonae - Greek islands, Turkey
  • Ophrys pseudomammosa Renz - Turkey, Greece
Ophrys reinholdii (Reinhold's Bee-orchid)
  • Ophrys reinholdii Spruner ex Fleischm. – Reinhold's Bee-orchid - from Croatia to Turkey
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. antiochiana (H. Baumann & Künkele) H.Baumann & R.Lorenz - Turkey, Syria
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. reinholdii - from Croatia to Turkey
    • Ophrys reinholdii subsp. straussii (H. Fleischm.) E. Nelson - Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Cyprus, Greek islands
  • Ophrys schulzei Bornm. & Fleischm. - Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon
  • Ophrys scolopax Cav. – Woodcock Bee-orchid - from Morocco and Portugal to Hungary and Iran
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. apiformis (Desf.) Maire & Weiller - Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. conradiae (Melki & Deschâtres) H.Baumann & al. - Corsica, Sardinia, Italy
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta (Steven) E.G. Camus - Italy, Hungary, the Balkans, Crimea, Turkey, Caucasus
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. heldreichii (Schltr.) E.Nelson Greece, Turkey
    • Ophrys scolopax var. minutula (Gölz & H.R. Reinhard) H.A. Pedersen & Faurh - Turkey, Greek islands
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. rhodia (H.Baumann & Künkele) H.A. Pedersen & Faurh. - Greek islands
    • Ophrys scolopax subsp. scolopax - from Portugal to Iran
Ophrys speculum (Mirror Bee Orchid)
  • Ophrys speculum Link – Mirror Bee-orchid, Mirror Orchid - from Portugal to Syria
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. lusitanica O.Danesch & E.Danesch - Spain, Portugal
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. regis-ferdinandii (Acht. & Kellerer ex Renz) Soó - Turkey, Greek islands
    • Ophrys speculum subsp. speculum - from Portugal to Syria
  • Ophrys sphegodes Mill. – Early Spider-orchid - from Britain and Portugal to Iran
    • Ophrys sphegodes nothosubsp. jeanpertii (E.G. Camus) Del Prete & Conte - France, Spain, Balkans (O. sphegodes subsp. araneola × O. sphegodes subsp. sphegodes)
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aesculapii (Renz) Soó ex J.J.Wood - Greece
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. araneola (Rchb.) M.Laínz - Germany, Switzerland, France, Spain, Italy, Yugoslavia
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata (Rchb.f.) A.Bolòs - from Portugal to Serbia
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. aveyronensis J.J.Wood - France, Spain
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. catalcana Kreutz - European Turkey
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. cretensis H.Baumann & Künkele - Crete and other Greek islands
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. epirotica (Renz) Gölz & H.R.Reinhard - Albania, Greece
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. gortynia H.Baumann & Künkele - Crete and other Greek islands
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. helenae (Renz) Soó & D.M.Moore - Albania, Greece
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. mammosa (Desf.) Soó ex E.Nelson - from the Balkans to Turkmenistan
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. passionis (Sennen) Sanz & Nuet - France, Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, mainland Italy
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sipontensis (R.Lorenz & Gembardt) H.A.Pedersen & Faurh. - Apulia
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. sphegodes - from Britain and Spain to Hungary and the Balkans
    • Ophrys sphegodes subsp. spruneri (Nyman) E.Nelson - Crete and other Greek islands
Ophrys tenthredinifera
  • Ophrys tenthredinifera Willd. - from Portugal and Morocco to Turkey
  • Ophrys tremoris Gämperle & Gölz - Turkey
  • Ophrys ulupinara W.Hahn - Turkey
  • Ophrys umbilicata Desf. - from the Balkans to Iran
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. beerii Shifman - Israel
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. bucephala (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Biel - Turkey and the Greek islands
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. calycadniensis Perschke - Turkey
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. flavomarginata (Renz) Faurh. - Cyprus, Syria, Israel
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. lapethica (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Faurh. - Cyprus
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. latakiana (M.Schönfelder & H.Schönfelder) Faurh. & H.A.Pedersen - Turkey, Syria
    • Ophrys umbilicata subsp. umbilicata - from the Balkans to Iran
  • Ophrys urteae Paulus - Turkey
  • Ophrys zagrica Gölz - Iran
Ophrys sulcata - MHNT

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. Jarvis, Taxon 41: 566 (1992)
  2. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. Altervista Flora Italiana, Ophrys
  • Ayasse, M (2007). "Chemical mimicry in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys. Phyton-". Annales Rei Botanicae. 46: 221–223.
  • Schiestl, F. P.; Cozzolino, S. (2008). "Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-27.
  • Schluter, P. M.; Ruas, P. M.; Kohl, G.; Ruas, C. F.; Stuessy, T. F.; Paulus, H. F. (2009). "Genetic patterns and pollination in Ophrys iricolor and O-mesaritica (Orchidaceae): sympatric evolution by pollinator shift". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 159: 583–598. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00957.x.
  • Vereecken, N. J.; Schiestl, F. P. (2008). "The evolution of imperfect floral mimicry". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105: 7484–7488. doi:10.1073/pnas.0800194105.

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