ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് മ്യൂസിയം

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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British Museum
ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് മ്യൂസിയം is located in Central London
ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് മ്യൂസിയം
Location within central London
സ്ഥാപിക്കപ്പെട്ടത് 1753; 265 years ago (1753)
സ്ഥലം Great Russell Street
London, WC1B
United Kingdom
Collection size approx. 8 million objects[1]
Visitor figures

5,906,716 (2017)[2]

Director Hartwig Fischer
പൊതു ഗതാഗത സൗകര്യം London Underground Goodge Street; Holborn; Tottenham Court Road; Russell Square;
വെബ്‌സൈറ്റ് britishmuseum.org
Area 807,000 sq ft (75,000 m2) in
94 Galleries
The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2001 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room.

ലണ്ടനിലെ Bloomsbury -സ്ഥിതിചെയ്യുന്ന മനുഷ്യചരിത്രത്തിനും കലയ്കും സംസ്കാരത്തിനുമായി സമർപിക്കപ്പെട്ടിട്ടുള്ള ഒരു പൊതുസ്ഥാപനമാണ് ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് മ്യൂസിയം - The British Museum. ഇവിടുത്തെ സ്ഥിരം ശേഖരം തന്നെ ഏതാണ്ട് 80 ലക്ഷം എണ്ണം വരും.[3] ഏറ്റവും വലിയ മ്യൂസിയങ്ങളിൽ ഒന്നാണിത്[3]

ചരിത്രം[തിരുത്തുക]

Hans Sloane[തിരുത്തുക]

Foundation (1753)[തിരുത്തുക]

Montagu House, c. 1715

Cabinet of curiosities (1753–78)[തിരുത്തുക]

The Rosetta Stone on display in the British Museum in 1874

Indolence and energy (1778–1800)[തിരുത്തുക]

Entrance ticket to the British Museum, London 3 March 1790

Growth and change (1800–25)[തിരുത്തുക]

The Elgin Room, 1937
Left to Right: Montagu House, Townley Gallery and Sir Robert Smirke's west wing under construction, July 1828

The largest building site in Europe (1825–50)[തിരുത്തുക]

The Grenville Library, 1875

Collecting from the wider world (1850–75)[തിരുത്തുക]

Scholarship and legacies (1875–1900)[തിരുത്തുക]

New century, new building (1900–25)[തിരുത്തുക]

Opening of The North Wing, King Edward VII's Galleries, 1914
Sir Leonard Woolley holding the excavated Sumerian Queen's Lyre, 1922

Disruption and reconstruction (1925–50)[തിരുത്തുക]

A new public face (1950–75)[തിരുത്തുക]

The re-opened Duveen Gallery, 1980

The Great Court emerges (1975–2000)[തിരുത്തുക]

The British Museum today[തിരുത്തുക]

Governance[തിരുത്തുക]

Building[തിരുത്തുക]

The main entrance to the museum, with Greek temple style portico, 2007
The Enlightenment Gallery at museum, which formerly held the King's Library, 2007
Proposed British Museum Extension, 1906
The Reading Room and Great Court roof, 2005
External view of the World Conservation and Exhibition Centre at the museum, 2015

Departments[തിരുത്തുക]

Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan[തിരുത്തുക]

Key highlights of the collections include:

Room 61 – The famous false fresco 'Pond in a Garden' from the Tomb of Nebamun, c. 1350 BC
Room 4 – The Rosetta Stone, key to the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs, 196 BC

Predynastic and Early Dynastic period (c. 6000 BC – c. 2690 BC)

Old Kingdom (2690–2181 BC)

Middle Kingdom (2134–1690 BC)

  • Inner and outer coffin of Sebekhetepi, Beni Hasan, (about 2125–1795 BC)
  • Limestone stela of Heqaib, Abydos, Egypt, 12th Dynasty, (1990–1750 BC)
  • Block statue and stela of Sahathor, 12th Dynasty, reign of Amenemhat II, (about 1922–1878 BC)

New Kingdom (1549–1069 BC)

Third Intermediate Period (1069–664 BC)

  • Mummy case and coffin of Nesperennub, Thebes, (c.800 BC)
  • Statue of Amun in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, (683 BC)
  • Inner and outer coffins of the priest Hor, Deir el-Bahari, Thebes, 25th Dynasty, (about 680 BC)

Late Period (664–332 BC)

  • Saite Sarcophagus of Satsobek, the vizier (prime minister) of the northern part of Egypt in the reign of Psammetichus I, (664–610 BC)
  • Bronze figure of Isis and Horus, North Saqqara, Egypt, (600 BC)
  • Obelisks and sarcophagus of Pharaoh Nectanebo II, (360–343 BC)

Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC)

  • The famous Rosetta Stone, trilingual stela that unlocked the ancient Egyptian civilisation, (196 BC)
  • Giant sculpture of a scarab beetle, (32–30 BC)
  • Mummy of Hornedjitef (inner coffin), Thebes, (3rd century BC)

Roman Period (30 BC-641 AD)

  • The Meriotic Hamadab Stela from the Kingdom of Kush found near the ancient site of Meroë in Sudan, 24 BC
  • Lid of the coffin of Soter and Cleopatra from Qurna, Thebes, (early 2nd century AD)
  • Mummy of a youth with a portrait of the deceased, Hawara, (100–200 AD)

Department of Greece and Rome[തിരുത്തുക]

Room 17 – Reconstruction of the Nereid Monument, c. 390 BC
Room 18 – Parthenon marbles from the Acropolis of Athens, 447 BC
Room 21 – Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, mid-4th century BC

Key highlights of the collections include:

Parthenon

Erechtheion

  • A surviving column, (420–415 BC)
  • One of six remaining Caryatids, (415 BC)

Temple of Athena Nike

  • Surviving frieze slabs, (427–424 BC)

Temple of Bassae

  • Twenty-three surviving blocks of the frieze from the interior of the temple, (420–400 BC)

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

  • Two colossal free-standing figures identified as Maussollos and his wife Artemisia, (c. 350 BC)
  • Part of an impressive horse from the chariot group adorning the summit of the Mausoleum, (c. 350 BC)
  • The Amazonomachy frieze – A long section of relief frieze showing the battle between Greeks and Amazons, (c. 350 BC)

Temple of Artemis in Ephesus

  • One of the sculptured column bases, (340–320 BC)
  • Part of the Ionic frieze situated above the colonnade, (330–300 BC)

Knidos in Asia Minor

Xanthos in Asia Minor

  • Lion Tomb, (550–500 BC)
  • Harpy Tomb, (480–470 BC)
  • Nereid Monument, partial reconstruction of a large and elaborate Lykian tomb, (390–380 BC)
  • Tomb of Merehi, (390–350 BC)
  • Tomb of Payava, (375–350 BC)

Wider collection

Prehistoric Greece and Italy (3300 BC – 8th century BC)

Etruscan (8th century BC – 1st century BC)

Ancient Greece (8th century BC – 4th century AD)

Ancient Rome (1st century BC – 4th century AD)

Department of the Middle East[തിരുത്തുക]

Room 9 – Assyrian palace reliefs, Nineveh, 701–681 BC
Room 6 – Pair of Human Headed Winged Lions and reliefs from Nimrud with the Balawat Gates, c. 860 BC
Room 52 – Ancient Iran with the Cyrus Cylinder, considered to be the world's first charter of human rights, 559–530 BC

Key highlights of the collections include:

Nimrud:

Nineveh:

Department of Prints and Drawings[തിരുത്തുക]

Department of Britain, Europe and Prehistory[തിരുത്തുക]

Display case of Renaissance metalware from the Waddesdon Bequest

Key highlights of the collections include:

Stone Age (c. 3.4 million years BC – c. 2000 BC)

Bronze Age (c. 3300 BC – c. 600 BC)

Iron Age (c. 600 BC – c. 1st century AD)

Romano-British (43 AD – 410 AD)

  • Tombstone of Roman procurator Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus from London, (1st century AD)
  • Ribchester, Guisborough and Witcham helmets once worn by Roman cavalry in Britain, (1st–2nd centuries AD)
  • Elaborate gold bracelets and ring found near Rhayader, central Wales, (1st–2nd centuries AD)
  • Bronze heads of the Roman Emperors Hadrian and Claudius, found in London and Suffolk, (1st–2nd centuries AD)
  • Vindolanda Tablets, important historical documents found near Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland, (1st–2nd centuries AD)
  • Wall-paintings and sculptures from the Roman Villa at Lullingstone, Kent, south east England,1st–4th centuries AD)
  • Capheaton and Backworth treasures, remnants of two important hoards from northern England, (2nd–3rd centuries AD)
  • Stony Stratford Hoard of copper headdresses, fibulae and silver votive plaques, central England, (3rd century AD)
  • Gold jewellery deposited at the site of Newgrange, Ireland, (4th century AD)
  • Thetford Hoard, late Roman jewellery from eastern England, (4th century AD)

Early Mediaeval (c. 4th century AD – c. 1000 AD)

Mediaeval (c. 1000 AD – c. 1500 AD)

Renaissance to Modern (c. 1500 AD – present)

The many hoards of treasure include those of Mildenhall, Esquiline, Carthage, First Cyprus, Lampsacus, Water Newton, Hoxne, and Vale of York, (4th–10th centuries AD)

Department of Asia[തിരുത്തുക]

പ്രധാന ലേഖനം: The British Museum Department of Asia
Room 95 – The Sir Percival David collection of Chinese ceramics

East Asia

South Asia

South-east Asia

  • Earthenware tazza from the Phùng Nguyên culture, northern Vietnam, (2000–1500 BC)
  • Pottery vessels and sherds from the ancient site of Ban Chiang, Thailand, (10th–1st centuries BC)
  • Bronze bell from Klang, Malaysia, (2nd century BC)
  • Group of six Buddhist clay votive plaques found in a cave in Patania, Penang, Malaysia (6th–11th centuries AD)
  • The famous Sambas Treasure of buddhist gold and silver figures from west Borneo, Indonesia, (8th–9th centuries AD)
  • Two stone Buddha heads from the temple at Borobodur in Java, Indonesia, (9th century AD)
  • Sandstone Champa figure of a rampant lion, Vietnam, (11th century AD)
  • Stone figure representing the upper part of an eleven-headed Avalokiteśvara, Cambodia, (12th century AD)
  • Bronze figure of a seated Buddha from Bagan, Burma, (12th–13th centuries AD)
  • Hoard of Southern Song dynasty ceramic vessels excavated at Pinagbayanan, Taysan Municipality, Philippines, (12th–13th centuries AD)
  • Statue of the Goddess Mamaki from Candi Jago, eastern Java, Indonesia, (13th–14th centuries AD)
  • Inscribed bronze figure of a Buddha from Fang District, part of a large SE Asian collection amassed by the Norwegian explorer Carl Bock, Thailand, (1540 AD)

Department of Africa, Oceania and the Americas[തിരുത്തുക]

Room 24 – The Wellcome Trust Gallery of Living and Dying, with Hoa Hakananai'a, a moai, in the centre

Africa

Room 25 – Collection of African throwing knives

Oceania

Americas

Department of Coins and Medals[തിരുത്തുക]

പ്രധാന ലേഖനം: British Museum Department of Coins and Medals

Department of Conservation and Scientific Research[തിരുത്തുക]

Libraries and archives[തിരുത്തുക]

British Museum Press[തിരുത്തുക]

Controversy[തിരുത്തുക]

A few of the Elgin Marbles (also known as the Parthenon Marbles) from the East Pediment of the Parthenon in Athens.

Disputed items in the collection[തിരുത്തുക]

Galleries[തിരുത്തുക]

Building
Museum Galleries

Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan

Department of the Middle East

Department of Greece and Rome

Digital and online[തിരുത്തുക]

The museum has a collaboration with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the collection online.[17]

Exhibitions

Forgotten Empire Exhibition (October 2005 – January 2006)

Notes[തിരുത്തുക]

References[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. "Collection size". British Museum. 
  2. "2017 Visitor Figures". Association of Leading Visitor Attractions. Retrieved 22 March 2018. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "About us". British Museum. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  4. Tony Kitto, "The celebrated connoisseur: Charles Townley, 1737–1805" Minerva Magazine May/June 2005, in connection with a British Museum exhibition celebrating the bicentennial of the Townley purchase. Townley marbles Burnley[പ്രവർത്തിക്കാത്ത കണ്ണി]
  5. British Museum Highlights
  6. "BM Reindeer". page-flip.co.uk. 
  7. "British Museum - Ain Sakhri lovers figurine". British Museum. 
  8. Editor. "Breal's Silver Cup to be displayed at the New Acropolis Museum for one-year period from September 2012". BCRPM. 
  9. Kennedy, Maev (28 March 2002). "British Museum sold precious bronzes". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  10. Johnson, Andrew (23 November 2008). "Ethiopia demands stolen crown back". Independent. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  11. Hoffman, Barbara T. (2006). Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy and Practice. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521857642. 
  12. "News – Getting the Nazi stolen art back". Channel 4 News. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  13. Harding, Luke (10 April 2007). "Tajik president calls for return of treasure from British Museum". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  14. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; ktixsj എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.
  15. "Egypt calls for return of Rosetta Stone". BBC News. 21 July 2003. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  16. Larmer, Brook (June 2010). "Caves of Faith". National Geographic: 136–138. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  17. "British Museum Online". 

Further reading[തിരുത്തുക]

External links[തിരുത്തുക]

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