സെനറ്റ് (അമേരിക്കൻ ഐക്യനാടുകൾ)

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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യുനൈറ്റഡ് സ്റ്റേറ്റ്സ് സെനറ്റ്
116th United States Congress
Coat of arms or logo
സെനറ്റിന്റെ ഔദ്യോഗിക മുദ്ര
Flag of the United States Senate
സെനറ്റിന്റെ ഔദ്യോഗിക പതാക
വിഭാഗം
വിഭാഗം
Upper house of the United States Congress
Term limits
None
ചരിത്രം
New session started
ജനുവരി 3, 2019 (2019-01-03)
നേതൃത്വം
Chuck Grassley (R)
January 3, 2019 മുതൽ
Patrick Leahy (D)
January 3, 2015 മുതൽ
Mitch McConnell (R)
January 3, 2015 മുതൽ
Chuck Schumer (D)
January 3, 2017 മുതൽ
John Thune (R)
January 3, 2019 മുതൽ
വിന്യാസം
സീറ്റുകൾ100
51 (or 50 plus the Vice President) for a majority
116th United States Senate.svg
രാഷ്ടീയ മുന്നണികൾ
Majority (53)

Minority (47)

Length of term
6 years
തെരഞ്ഞെടുപ്പുകൾ
Last election
November 6, 2018 (35 seats)
Next election
November 3, 2020 (35 seats)
സഭ കൂടുന്ന ഇടം
Senatefloor.jpg
Senate Chamber
United States Capitol
Washington, D.C.
United States of America
വെബ്സൈറ്റ്
senate.gov
Constitution
United States Constitution

അമേരിക്കൻ ഐക്യനാടുകളുടെ നിയമ നിർമ്മാണ സഭയായ കോൺഗ്രസ്‌സിലെ ഉപരിസഭയാണ് സെനറ്റ്. മൊത്തം 100 സീറ്റുകൾ ഉള്ള സെനറ്റിൽ നിലവിൽ റിപ്പബ്ലിക്കൻ പാർട്ടിക്ക് 53ഉം ഡെമോക്രാറ്റിക്‌ പാർട്ടിക്ക് 45ഉം സ്വതന്ത്രർക്ക് 2ഉം വീതം അംഗങ്ങൾ ആണ് ഉള്ളത്.

Notes[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. The independent senators, Angus King (I-ME) and Bernie Sanders (I-VT), caucus with the Democrats.

References[തിരുത്തുക]

Bibliography[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Baker, Richard A. The Senate of the United States: A Bicentennial History Krieger, 1988.
  • Baker, Richard A., ed., First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century Congressional Quarterly, 1991.
  • Barone, Michael, and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 1976: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (1975); new edition every 2 years
  • David W. Brady and Mathew D. McCubbins. Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress (2002)
  • Caro, Robert A. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. Vol. 3: Master of the Senate. Knopf, 2002.
  • Comiskey, Michael. Seeking Justices: The Judging of Supreme Court Nominees U. Press of Kansas, 2004.
  • Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation XII: 2005–2008: Politics and Policy in the 109th and 110th Congresses (2010); massive, highly detailed summary of Congressional activity, as well as major executive and judicial decisions; based on Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report and the annual CQ almanac. The Congress and the Nation 2009–2012 vol XIII has been announced for September 2014 publication.
    • Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation: 2001–2004 (2005);
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1997–2001 (2002)
    • Congressional Quarterly. Congress and the Nation: 1993–1996 (1998)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1989–1992 (1993)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1985–1988 (1989)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1981–1984 (1985)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1977–1980 (1981)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1973–1976 (1977)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1969–1972 (1973)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1965–1968 (1969)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1945–1964 (1965), the first of the series
  • Cooper, John Milton, Jr. Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations. Cambridge U. Press, 2001.
  • Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J. Oleszek, eds. (1998). Congress and Its Members, 6th ed. Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly. (Legislative procedure, informal practices, and member information)
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Most Exclusive Club: A History Of The Modern United States Senate (2005)
  • Hernon, Joseph Martin. Profiles in Character: Hubris and Heroism in the U.S. Senate, 1789–1990 Sharpe, 1997.
  • Hoebeke, C. H. The Road to Mass Democracy: Original Intent and the Seventeenth Amendment. Transaction Books, 1995. (Popular elections of senators)
  • Lee, Frances E. and Oppenheimer, Bruce I. Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation. U. of Chicago Press 1999. 304 pp.
  • MacNeil, Neil and Richard A. Baker. The American Senate: An Insider's History. Oxford University Press, 2013. 455 pp.
  • McFarland, Ernest W. The Ernest W. McFarland Papers: The United States Senate Years, 1940–1952. Prescott, Ariz.: Sharlot Hall Museum, 1995 (Democratic majority leader 1950–52)
  • Malsberger, John W. From Obstruction to Moderation: The Transformation of Senate Conservatism, 1938–1952. Susquehanna U. Press 2000
  • Mann, Robert. The Walls of Jericho: Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Russell and the Struggle for Civil Rights. Harcourt Brace, 1996
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (1991). Press Gallery: Congress and the Washington Correspondents. Harvard University Press.
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (2001). The Congress of the United States: A Student Companion (2nd പതിപ്പ്.). Oxford University Press.
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (2010). The U.S. Congress: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
  • Rothman, David. Politics and Power the United States Senate 1869–1901 (1966)
  • Swift, Elaine K. The Making of an American Senate: Reconstitutive Change in Congress, 1787–1841. U. of Michigan Press, 1996
  • Valeo, Frank. Mike Mansfield, Majority Leader: A Different Kind of Senate, 1961–1976 Sharpe, 1999 (Senate Democratic leader)
  • VanBeek, Stephen D. Post-Passage Politics: Bicameral Resolution in Congress. U. of Pittsburgh Press 1995
  • Weller, Cecil Edward, Jr. Joe T. Robinson: Always a Loyal Democrat. U. of Arkansas Press, 1998. (Arkansas Democrat who was Majority leader in 1930s)
  • Wilson, Woodrow. Congressional Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1885; also 15th ed. 1900, repr. by photoreprint, Transaction books, 2002.
  • Wirls, Daniel and Wirls, Stephen. The Invention of the United States Senate Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2004. (Early history)
  • Zelizer, Julian E. On Capitol Hill : The Struggle to Reform Congress and its Consequences, 1948–2000 (2006)
  • Zelizer, Julian E., ed. The American Congress: The Building of Democracy (2004) (overview)

Official Senate histories[തിരുത്തുക]

The following are published by the Senate Historical Office.

  • Robert Byrd. The Senate, 1789–1989. Four volumes.
    • Vol. I, a chronological series of addresses on the history of the Senate
    • Vol. II, a topical series of addresses on various aspects of the Senate's operation and powers
    • Vol. III, Classic Speeches, 1830–1993
    • Vol. IV, Historical Statistics, 1789–1992
  • Dole, Bob. Historical Almanac of the United States Senate
  • Hatfield, Mark O., with the Senate Historical Office. Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789–1993 (essays reprinted online)
  • Frumin, Alan S. Riddick's Senate Procedure. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1992.

External links[തിരുത്തുക]