മീഡിയൻ ലീതൽ ഡോസ്

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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വിഷശാസ്ത്രത്തിൽ ഒരു വിഷത്തിന്റെയോ വിഷവസ്തുവിന്റെയോ റേഡിയേഷന്റെയോ മരണകാരണമാകാവുന്ന അളവിനെയാണ് മീഡിയൻ ലീതൽ ഡോസ് (the median lethal dose), LD50 ( "lethal dose, 50%" - എന്നതിന്റെ ചുരുക്കെഴുത്ത്), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% -എന്നതിന്റെ ചുരുക്കെഴുത്ത്) അല്ലെങ്കിൽ LCt50. പരീക്ഷണവിധേയമായ സഞ്ചയത്തിലെ എണ്ണത്തിന്റെ പകുതിയെ പരീക്ഷണത്തിനുതീരുമാനിക്കുന്ന സമയത്തിനുള്ളിൽ കൊല്ലാനുള്ള ഡോസ് ആണ് LD50. LD50 വിവരങ്ങൾ ഒരു പദാർത്ഥത്തിന്റെ മാരകഅളവിനെ കുറിക്കാൻ മിക്കവാറും ഉപയോഗിച്ചുവരുന്നു. LD50 - ന്റെ വില കുറവാണെങ്കിൽ വിഷശക്തി കൂടുതലായിരിക്കും.

Conventions[തിരുത്തുക]

പരിമിതികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

ഉദാഹരണങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Note: Comparing substances (especially drugs) to each other by LD50 can be misleading in many cases due (in part) to differences in effective dose (ED50). Therefore, it is more useful to compare such substances by therapeutic index, which is simply the ratio of LD50 to ED50.

The following examples are listed in reference to LD50 values, in descending order, and accompanied by LC50 values, {bracketed}, when appropriate.

Substance Animal, Route LD50
{LC50}
LD50 : g/kg
{LC50 : g/L}
standardized
Reference
Water rat, oral >90,000 mg/kg >90 [1]
Sucrose (table sugar) rat, oral 29,700 mg/kg 29.7 [2]
Glucose (blood sugar) rat, oral 25,800 mg/kg 25.8 [3]
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) rat, oral 16,600 mg/kg 16.6 [4]
Stevioside (from stevia) mice & rats, oral >15,000 mg/kg 15 [5]
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) rat, oral 11,900 mg/kg 11.9 [6]
Lactose (milk sugar) rat, oral >10,000 mg/kg 10.0 [7]
Aspartame mice, oral >10,000 mg/kg 10.0 [8]
Urea rat, oral 8,471 mg/kg 8.471 [9]
Cyanuric acid rat, oral 7,700 mg/kg 7.7 [10]
Cadmium sulfide rat, oral 7,080 mg/kg 7.08 [11]
Ethanol (Grain alcohol) rat, oral 7,060 mg/kg 7.06 [12]
Sodium isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA, metabolite of sarin) rat, oral 6,860 mg/kg 6.86 [13]
Melamine rat, oral 6,000 mg/kg 6 [10]
Methanol rat, oral 5,628 mg/kg 5.628 [14]
Taurine rat, oral >5,000 mg/kg 5.0 [15]
Melamine cyanurate rat, oral 4,100 mg/kg 4.1 [10]
Fructose (fruit sugar) rat, oral 4,000 mg/kg 4 [16]
Sodium molybdate rat, oral 4,000 mg/kg 4 [17]
Sodium chloride (table salt) rat, oral 3,000 mg/kg 3 [18]
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) mouse, oral 338 mg/kg 0.338 [19]
Synthetic Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) + Polysorbate 80 rat, oral 1270 mg/kg 1.27 [20]
Cannabidiol (CBD) rat, oral[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്] 980 mg/kg 0.98 [21]
Metallic Arsenic rat, oral 763 mg/kg 0.763 [22]
Ibuprofen rat, oral 636 mg/kg 0.636 [23]
Formaldehyde rat, oral 600–800 mg/kg 0.600 [24]
Alkyl dimethyl benzalkonium chloride (ADBAC) rat, oral
fish, immersion
aquatic invertebrates, immersion
304.5 mg/kg
{0.28 mg/L}
{0.059 mg/L}
0.3045
{0.00028}
{0.000059}
[25]
Coumarin (benzopyrone, from Cinnamomum aromaticum and other plants) rat, oral 293 mg/kg 0.293 [26]
Psilocybin (from magic mushrooms) mouse, oral 280 mg/kg 0.280 [27]
Hydrochloric acid rat, oral 238–277 mg/kg 0.238 [28]
Ketamine rat, intraperitoneal 229 mg/kg 0.229 [29]
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) rat, oral 200 mg/kg 0.2 [30]
Caffeine rat, oral 192 mg/kg 0.192 [31]
Arsenic trisulfide rat, oral 185–6,400 mg/kg 0.185–6.4 [32]
Sodium nitrite rat, oral 180 mg/kg 0.18 [33]
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) rat, oral 160 mg/kg 0.18 [34]
Uranyl acetate dihydrate mouse, oral 136 mg/kg 0.136 [35]
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) mouse, oral 135 mg/kg 0.135 [36]
Uranium mice, oral 114 mg/kg (estimated) 0.114 [37]
Bisoprolol mouse, oral 100 mg/kg 0.1 [38]
Cocaine mouse, oral 96 mg/kg 0.096 [39]
Cobalt(II) chloride rat, oral 80 mg/kg 0.08 [40]
Cadmium oxide rat, oral 72 mg/kg 0.072 [41]
Thiopental sodium (used in lethal injection) rat, oral 64 mg/kg 0.064 [42]
Methamphetamine rat, intraperitoneal 57 mg/kg 0.057 [43]
Sodium fluoride rat, oral 52 mg/kg 0.052 [44]
Pentaborane human, oral <50 mg/kg <0.05 [45]
Capsaicin mouse, oral 47.2 mg/kg 0.0472 [46]
Mercury(II) chloride rat, dermal 41 mg/kg 0.041 [47]
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) rat, oral 37 mg/kg 0.037 [48]
Piperidine (from black pepper) rat, oral 30 mg/kg 0.030 [49]
Heroin (diamorphine) mouse, intravenous 21.8 mg/kg 0.0218 [50]
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) rat, intravenous 16.5 mg/kg 0.0165 [51]
Arsenic trioxide rat, oral 14 mg/kg 0.014 [52]
Metallic Arsenic rat, intraperitoneal 13 mg/kg 0.013 [53]
Nicotine human, oral

mice, oral

6.5–13.0 mg/kg (estimated)

3.34 mg/kg

0.0065–0.013

0.0034

[54]

[55]

Sodium cyanide rat, oral 6.4 mg/kg 0.0064 [56]
Hydrogen cyanide mouse, oral 3.7 mg/kg 0.0037 [57]
Chlorotoxin (CTX, from scorpions) mice 4.3 mg/kg 0.0043 [58]
White phosphorus rat, oral 3.03 mg/kg 0.00303 [59]
Strychnine human, oral 1–2 mg/kg (estimated) 0.001 [60]
Cantharidin (from blister beetles) human, oral 500 µg/kg 0.0005
Aflatoxin B1 (from Aspergillus flavus mold) rat, oral 480 µg/kg 0.00048 [61]
Plutonium dog, intravenous 320 µg/kg 0.00032 [62]
Amatoxin (from Amanita phalloides mushrooms) rat 300-700 µg/kg 0.0007 [63]
Tetrodotoxin (TTX, from blue-ringed octopus) mice, oral 334 µg/kg 0.000334 [64]
Fentanyl monkey 300 µg/kg 0.0003 [65]
Bufotoxin (from Bufo toads) cat, intravenous 300 µg/kg 0.000300 [66]
Sarin mouse, subcutaneous injection 172 µg/kg 0.000172 [67]
Robustoxin (from Sydney funnel-web spider) mice 150 µg/kg 0.000150 [68]
VX human, oral, inhalation, absorption through skin/eyes 140 µg/kg (estimated) 0.00014 [69]
Venom of the Brazilian wandering spider rat, subcutaneous 134 µg/kg 0.000134 [70]
Venom of the Inland Taipan (Australian snake) rat, subcutaneous 25 µg/kg 0.000025 [71]
Ricin (from castor oil plant) rat, intraperitoneal
rat, oral
22 μg/kg
20–30 mg/kg
0.000022
0.02
[72]
Carfentanil human, oral 20 µg/kg 0.00002 [73]
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD, in Agent Orange) rat, oral 20 µg/kg 0.00002 [74]
CrTX-A (from box jellyfish venom) crayfish, intraperitoneal 5 µg/kg 0.000005 [75]
Latrotoxin (from widow spider venom) mice 4.3 µg/kg 0.0000043 [76]
Batrachotoxin (from poison dart frog) human, sub-cutaneous injection 2–7 µg/kg (estimated) 0.000002 [77]
Abrin (from rosary pea) mice, intravenously

human, inhalation

human, oral

0.7 µg/kg

3.3 µg/kg

10–1000 µg/kg

0.0000007

0.0000033

0.00001–0.001

Maitotoxin (from ciguateric fish) mouse, intraperitoneal 0.13 µg/kg 0.00000013 [78]
Polonium-210 human, inhalation 10 ng/kg (estimated) 0.00000001 [79]
Diphtheria toxin mice 10 ng/kg 0.00000001 [80]
Shiga toxin (from dysentery) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [80]
Tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [80]
Botulinum toxin (Botox) human, oral, injection, inhalation 1 ng/kg (estimated) 0.000000001 [81]
Ionizing radiation human, irradiation 5 Gy [82]

മൃഗാവകാശസംഘടനകളുടെ ഉൽക്കണ്ഠ[തിരുത്തുക]

Animal-rights and animal-welfare groups, such as Animal Rights International,[83] have campaigned against LD50 testing on animals. Several countries, including the UK, have taken steps to ban the oral LD50, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) abolished the requirement for the oral test in 2001 (see Test Guideline 401, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Vol 22, February 22, 2001).

ഇവയും കാണുക[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Animal testing
  • Reed-Muench method

വിഷത്തെ അളക്കുന്ന മറ്റുരീതികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട അളവുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

  • TCID50 Tissue Culture Infective Dosage
  • EID50 Egg Infective Dosage
  • ELD50 Egg Lethal Dosage
  • Plaque forming units (pfu)

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

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  2. Safety (MSDS) data for sucrose
  3. Safety (MSDS) data for glucose
  4. Walker R, Lupien JR (April 2000). "The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4S Suppl): 1049S–52S. PMID 10736380.
  5. Toskulkao C, Chaturat L, Temcharoen P, Glinsukon T (1997). "Acute toxicity of stevioside, a natural sweetener, and its metabolite, steviol, in several animal species". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 20 (1–2): 31–44. doi:10.3109/01480549709011077. PMID 9183561.
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  7. "Safety (MSDS) data for Lactose" (PDF).
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  9. "Safety (MSDS) data for urea". 2015-03-06. Section 11: Toxicological Information for the LD50 verification. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 2015-03-06.
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  12. Safety (MSDS) data for ethyl alcohol
  13. Mecler, Francis J. (May 1981). Mammalian Toxological Evaluation of DIMP and DCBP (Phase 3 – IMPA) (Final report ed.). Litton Bionetics, Inc. The oral LD50 values for the test material, IMPA, were 7650 and 6070 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively.
  14. Safety (MSDS) data for methanol
  15. Safety data for taurine
  16. Safety (MSDS) data for fructose
  17. Safety (MSDS) data for sodium molybdate
  18. Safety (MSDS) data for sodium chloride
  19. Safety (MSDS) data for paracetamol
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  23. MSDS of Ibuprofen
  24. Formaldehyde SIDS Initial Assessment Report
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  27. Handbook of Mushroom Poisoning
  28. Safety (MSDS) data for hydrochloric acid
  29. Ketamine
  30. Safety (MSDS) data for acetylsalicylic acid
  31. Safety (MSDS) data for caffeine
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  37. http://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/pub_meet/en/Depluranium4.pdf
  38. DrugBank data for bisoprolol
  39. DrugBank data for Cocaine
  40. Safety (MSDS) data for cobalt (II) chloride
  41. Safety (MSDS) data for cadmium oxide
  42. Thiopental sodium MSDS
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  44. Sodium Fluoride MSDS
  45. Pentaborane chemical and safety data
  46. "Capsaicin Material Safety Data Sheet" (PDF). sciencelab.com. 2007. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 2007-07-13.
  47. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/DisplayMSDSContent.doc
  48. MSDS for cholecalciferol crystalline
  49. MSDS for piperidine (pepper)
  50. MSDS for diamorphine
  51. Erowid LSD (Acid) Vault : Fatalities / Deaths. Erowid.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  52. Safety (MSDS) data for arsenic trioxide
  53. Safety (MSDS) data for metallic arsenic
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  61. Safety (MSDS) data for aflatoxin B1
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പുറത്തേക്കുള്ള കണ്ണികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

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