മാക്സ് ബോൺ

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Max Born
Max Born (1882–1970)
ജനനം 1882 ഡിസംബർ 11(1882-12-11)
Breslau, German Empire
മരണം 1970 ജനുവരി 5(1970-01-05) (പ്രായം 87)
Göttingen, West Germany
താമസം Göttingen, West Germany
പൗരത്വം German, British
മേഖലകൾ Physics
സ്ഥാപനങ്ങൾ University of Frankfurt am Main
University of Göttingen
University of Edinburgh
ബിരുദം University of Göttingen
ഡോക്ടറേറ്റിനുള്ള ഉപദേശകൻ Carl Runge
മറ്റ് അക്കാഡമിക്ക് ഉപദേശകർ Woldemar Voigt
Karl Schwarzschild
Joseph Larmor
J. J. Thomson
ഗവേഷണവിദ്യാർത്ഥികൾ Victor Frederick Weisskopf
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim
Max Delbrück
Walter Elsasser
Friedrich Hund
Pascual Jordan
Maria Goeppert-Mayer
Herbert S. Green
Cheng Kaijia
Siegfried Flügge
Edgar Krahn
Maurice Pryce
Antonio Rodríguez
Bertha Swirles
Paul Weiss
Peng Huanwu
Other notable students Emil Wolf
അറിയപ്പെടുന്നത് Born–Haber cycle
Born rigidity
Born coordinates
Born approximation
Born probability
Born–Infeld theory
Born–Oppenheimer approximation
Born's Rule
Born–Landé equation
Born–Huang approximation
Born–von Karman boundary condition
Born equation
പ്രധാന പുരസ്കാരങ്ങൾ Nobel Prize in Physics (1954)
Hughes Medal (1950)
Max Planck Medal (1948)
Fellow of the Royal Society (1939)
ജീവിത പങ്കാളി Hedwig (Hedi) Ehrenberg (m. 1913-1970; his death; 3 children)

ജർമ്മൻ ഭൗതികശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞനും ഗണിതശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞനുമാണ്‌ ഇദ്ദേഹമാണ്‌ ക്വാണ്ടം മെക്കാനികസ് വളർച്ചയിൽ നിർണായക പങ്ക് വഹിച്ചു.ഖര പദാർഥങ്ങളെ പറ്റിയും ഒപ്റ്റിക്സിലും അദേഹം വിലപ്പെട്ട സംഭാവനകൾ നൽകി.1954ലെ ഭൗതികശാസ്ത്രത്തിനുള്ള നോബൽസമ്മാനം ഇദ്ദേഹത്തിനായിരുന്നു.ക്വാണ്ടം മെക്കാനിക്സിലെ പഠനത്തിനാണ്‌ ഇദ്ദേഹത്തിനു നോബൽ സമ്മാനം കിട്ടിയത്.


During his life, Born wrote several semi-popular and technical books. His volumes on topics like atomic physics and optics were very well received.

  • Max Born The statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. Nobel Lecture – 11 December 1954.
  • Über das Thomson'sche Atommodell Habilitations-Vortrag (FAM, 1909) - The Habilitation was done at the University of Göttingen, on 23 October 1909.[1]
  • Dynamik der Kristallgitter (Teubner, 1915)[2] – After its publication, the physicist Arnold Sommerfeld asked Born to write an article based on it for the 5th volume of the Mathematical Encyclopedia. The First World War delayed the start of work on this article, but it was taken up in 1919 and finished in 1922. It was published as a revised edition under the title Atomic Theory of Solid States.[3]
  • Die Relativitätstheorie Einsteins und ihre physikalischen Grundlagen (Springer, 1920) – Based on Born's lectures at the University of Frankfurt am Main.[5]
    • Available in English under the title Einstein's Theory of Relativity.[6]
  • Vorlesungen über Atommechanik (Springer, 1925)[2]
    • Mechanics of the Atom (George Bell & Sons, 1927) – Translated by J. W. Fisher and revised by D. R. Hartree.[7]
  • Problems of Atomic Dynamics (MIT Press, 1926) – A first account of matrix mechanics being developed in Germany, based on two series of lectures given at MIT, over three months, in late 1925 and early 1926.[8][9]
  • Elementare Quantenmechanik (Zweiter Band der Vorlesungen über Atommechanik), with Pascual Jordan. (Springer, 1930) – This was the first volume of what was intended as a two-volume work. This volume was limited to the work Born did with Jordan on matrix mechanics. The second volume was to deal with Erwin Schrödinger's wave mechanics. However, the second volume was not even started by Born, as he believed his friend and colleague Hermann Weyl had written it before he could do so.[10][11]
  • Optik: Ein Lehrbuch der elektromagnetische Lichttheorie (Springer, 1933) – The book was released just as the Borns were emigrating to England.
    • Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light,[12] with Emil Wolf. (Pergamon, 1959) – This book is not an English translation of Optik, but rather a substantially new book. Shortly after World War II, a number of scientists suggested that Born update and translate his work into English. Since there had been many advances in optics in the intervening years, updating was warranted. In 1951, Emil Wolf began as Born's private assistant on the book; it was eventually published in 1959 by Robert Maxwell's Pergamon Press.[13] – the delay being due to the lengthy time needed "to resolve all the financial and publishing tricks created by Maxwell."[14]
  • Moderne Physik (1933) – Based on seven lectures given at the Technischen Hochschule Berlin.[15]
    • Atomic Physics (Blackie, London, 1935) – Authorized translation of Moderne Physik by John Dougall, with updates.[16]
  • The Restless Universe[17] (Blackie and Son Limited, 1935) - A popularised rendition of the workshop of nature. Born's nephew, Otto Königsberger, whose successful career as an architect in Berlin was brought to an end when the Nazis took over, was temporarily brought to England to illustrate the book.[15]
  • Experiment and Theory in Physics (Cambridge University Press, 1943) – The address given King's College, Newcastle upon Tyne, at the request of the Durham Philosophical Society and the Pure Science Society. An expanded version of the lecture appeared in a 1956 Dover Publications edition.[18]
  • Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance (Oxford University Press, 1949) – Based on Born's 1948 Waynflete lectures, given at the College of St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford University. A later edition (Dover, 1964) included two appendices: "Symbol and Reality" and Born's lecture given at the Nobel laureates 1964 meeting in Landau, Germany.[19]
  • A General Kinetic Theory of Liquids with H. S. Green (Cambridge University Press, 1949) – The six papers in this book were reproduced with permission from the Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • Physics in My Generation: A Selection of Papers (Pergamon, 1956)[20]
  • Physik im Wandel meiner Zeit (Vieweg, 1957)
  • Physik und Politik (VandenHoeck und Ruprecht, 1960)
  • Zur Begründung der Matrizenmechanik, with Werner Heisenberg and Pascual Jordan (Battenberg, 1962) – Published in honor of Max Born's 80th birthday. This edition reprinted the authors' articles on matrix mechanics published in Zeitscrift für Physik, Volumes 26 and 3335, 1924–1926.[21]
  • My Life and My Views: A Nobel Prize Winner in Physics Writes Provocatively on a Wide Range of Subjects (Scribner, 1968) – Part II (pp. 63–206) is a translation of Verantwortung des Naturwissenschaftlers.[22]
  • Briefwechsel 1916–1955, kommentiert von Max Born with Hedwig Born and Albert Einstein (Nymphenburger, 1969)
    • The Born–Einstein Letters: Correspondence between Albert Einstein and Max and Hedwig Born from 1916–1955, with commentaries by Max Born (Macmillan, 1971).[23]
  • Mein Leben: Die Erinnerungen des Nobelpreisträgers (Munich: Nymphenburger, 1975). Born's published memoirs.
    • My Life: Recollections of a Nobel Laureate (Scribner, 1978).[24] Translation of Mein Leben.

For a full list of his published papers, see HistCite. For his published works, see Published Works – Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften Akademiebibliothek.



  1. Greenspan, 2005, pp. 49, 51, and 353.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Greenspan, 2005, p. 352.
  3. Greenspan, 2005, pp. 66, 110, and 115.
  4. A new edition of Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices is available from Oxford University Press in hard cover ISBN 978-0-19-850369-9 and in soft cover ISBN 0-19-850369-5.
  5. Greenspan, 2005, p. 100.
  6. Einstein's Theory of Relativity, Dover Publications, 1962 edition, ISBN 0-486-60769-0.
  7. AIP Niels Bohr Library and AbeBooks: Search on Mechanics of the Atom.
  8. Greenspan, 2005, p. 132.
  9. Problems of Atomic Dynamics is available from MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-52019-2, and Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-43873-2.
  10. Greenspan, 2005, pp. 159–160.
  11. Jungnickel, Volume 2, 1990, p. 378.
  12. Principles of Optics is now in its 7th revised printing, ISBN 0-521-64222-1. The first 5 revised editions were done by Pergamon Press (1959–1975). The last 2 were done by Cambridge University Press in 1980 and 1999.
  13. Paul Rosbaud, a former editor at Springer who remained in Germany during World War II and spied for the allies, was initially involved with Born and the endeavor to publish Optik in English, as Rosbaud was organizing a publishing company in England after the war. The publishing company did not materialize, and Rosbaud eventually joined Pergamon Press. (Greenspan, 2005, pp. 292–294.)
  14. Greenspan, 2005, pp. 174, 292–294.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Greenspan, 2005, p. 201.
  16. The eighth edition was published in 1969, including revisions by R. J. Blin-Stoyle & J. M. Radcliffe. The 8th edition of Atomic Physics is available from Dover Publications in paper cover, ISBN 0-486-65984-4.
  17. The Restless Universe was last published by Dover Publications, 1951, ISBN 0-486-20412-X, but it is no longer in print.
  18. Greenspan, 2005, 245–246
  19. Citations for Max Born Based on the Library of Congress – See the entry for Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance. Also see Greenspan, 2005, p. 352.
  20. Physics in My Generation (Springer, 1969), ISBN 0-387-90008-X.
  21. AIP Niels Bohr Library
  22. AIP Niels Bohr Library
  23. The Born–Einstein Letters, Macmillan Publishers, 2004, ISBN 1-4039-4496-2.
  24. My Life: Recollections of a Nobel Laureate was also published by Taylor and Francis/Charles Scribner's Sons, ISBN 0-85066-174–9. No longer in print.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 Born Biographic Data
  26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1971.0002
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  27. The award was presented for research on quantum mechanics of fields and shared with Born's collaborator H. W. Peng. See Greenspan, 2005, p. 257 and Born Biographic Data.
  28. Nobel Prize Banquet Speech
  29. Born Nobel Prize Lecture
  30. Nobel Biographic Data
  31. "The Born medal and prize". Institute of Physics. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 30 August 2011. 
  32. "Max-Born-Preis" [Max Born Prize] (ഭാഷ: German). German Physical Society. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 30 August 2011.  Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (സഹായം)
  33. James Franck und Max Born in Göttingen: Reden zur akademischen Feier aus Anlass der 100. Wiederkehr ihres Geburtsjahres. (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983). Speeches by Norbert Kamp, Peter Haasen, Gerhart W. Rathenau, and Friedrich Hund. Franck was Director of the Second Institute for Experimental Physics at Göttingen, while Born was Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics.
  34. "Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroskopy - Developement of the MBI". ശേഖരിച്ചത് 10 March 2009. 

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