ക്രോകസ്

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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ക്രോകസ്
برداشت زعفران در روستای زالی عکس از احمد نیک گفتار.JPG
Crocus sativus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
(unranked):
(unranked):
Order:
Family:
Iridaceae
Genus:
Crocus
Type species
Crocus sativus
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Safran Medik.
  • Geanthus Raf.
  • Crociris Schur

ഭൂകാണ്ഡത്തിൽ നിന്ന് വളരുന്ന ഐറിസ് കുടുംബത്തിലെ 90 ഇനം വാർഷികസസ്യങ്ങളിലെ പൂക്കുന്ന സസ്യങ്ങളുടെ ഒരു ജനുസ്സാണ് ക്രോകസ്. ശീതകാലം, ശൈത്യകാലം, അല്ലെങ്കിൽ വസന്തകാലത്ത് പൂക്കൾ ധാരാളം കാണപ്പെടുന്നു. ക്രോക്കസ് സാറ്റിവസ് എന്ന ശരത്കാല പൂക്കളിൽ നിന്നുമുള്ള തന്തുകത്തിൽ നിന്നും സുഗന്ധദ്രവ്യമായ കുങ്കുമം നിർമ്മിക്കുന്നു. വടക്കു കിഴക്കൻ ഏഷ്യൻ , മദ്ധ്യ ഏഷ്യ എന്നിവിടങ്ങളിൽ നിന്ന് പടിഞ്ഞാറൻ ചൈനയിലെ സിൻജിയാങ് പ്രവിശ്യയിലേക്കുള്ള സമുദ്രനിരപ്പിൽ നിന്നും ആൽപൈൻ തുണ്ട്ര, ഈജിയൻ ദ്വീപുകൾ, വനപ്രദേശങ്ങൾ, കുറ്റിക്കാടുകൾ, പുൽമേടുകൾ എന്നിവിടങ്ങളിൽ ക്രോകസ് കാണപ്പെടുന്നു.[1][2][3]

ചിത്രശാല[തിരുത്തുക]

സ്പീഷീസ്[തിരുത്തുക]

Crocus tommasinianus (Section Crocus, Series Verni)
Crocus vernus subsp. vernus (Section Crocus, Series Verni)
Crocus vernus subsp. albiflorus (Section Crocus, Series Verni)
Crocus ligusticus (Section Crocus, Series Longiflori)
Crocus ochroleucus (Section Crocus, Series Kotschyani)
Crocus sativus (Section Crocus, Series Crocus)
Crocus mathewii (Section Crocus, Series Crocus)
Crocus sieberi subsp. sublimis 'Tricolor' (Section Nudiscapus, Series Reticulati)
Crocus speciosus (Section Nudiscapus, Series Speciosi)

Below is the classification proposed by Brian Mathew in 1982, adapted in accordance with the above findings:

A. Section Crocus : species with a basal prophyll
Series Verni: corms with reticulated fibers, spring-flowering (apart from Crocus longiflorus), flowers for the most part without conspicuous outer striping, bracts absent
Series Baytopi (new Series): corms with strongly reticulated fibers; leaves numerous, narrowly linear; spring-flowering, bracts absent; anthers extrorsely dehiscent[5]
Series Scardici: spring-flowering, leaves have no pale stripe on the upper surface
Series Versicolores: spring-flowering, corms with tunics, which for the most part have parallel fibers, flowers with conspicuous exterior striping
Series Longiflori: autumn-flowering, yellow anthers, styles much divided
Series Kotschyani: autumn-flowering, anthers white, styles for the most part three-forked
Series Crocus: autumn-flowering, anthers yellow, style distinctly three-branched
Position unclear[5]
B. Section Nudiscapus: species without a basal prophyll
Series Reticulati: corm tunic for the most part decidedly covered with reticulated fibers, flower produced in winter or spring, style three-forked or much divided
Series Biflori: tunics of corms split into rings at the base, either entire or with toothlike projections, leathery in texture, spring- or late-winter flowering, style three-forked
  • Crocus aerius Herb.
  • Crocus almehensis C.D. Brickell & B. Mathew
  • Crocus biflorus Mill. – silvery crocus, Scotch crocus
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. biflorus
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. adamii (J.Gay) K.Richt.
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. alexandri (Nicic ex Velen.) B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. artvinensis (J.Philippow) B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. atrospermus Kernd. & Pasche
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. caelestis Kernd. & Pasche
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. caricus Kernd. & Pasche
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. crewei (Hook.f.) B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. fibroannulatus Kernd. & Pasche
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. ionopharynx Kernd. & Pasche
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. isauricus (Siehe ex Bowles) B.Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. leucostylosus Kernd. & Pasche
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. melantherus B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. nubigena (Herb.) B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. pseudonubigena B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. pulchricolor (Herb.) B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. punctatus B.Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. stridii (Papan. & Zacharof) B.Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. tauri (Maw) B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. weldenii (Hoppe & Fuernr.) B. Mathew
    • Crocus biflorus subsp. yataganensis Kernd. & Pasche
  • Crocus chrysanthus Herb. – Golden crocus, Snow crocus
    • Crocus chrysanthus subsp. chrysanthus
    • Crocus chrysanthus subsp. multifolius Papan. & Zacharof
  • Crocus cyprius Boiss. & Kotschy
  • Crocus danfordiae Maw
    • Crocus danfordiae subsp. danfordiae
    • Crocus danfordiae subsp. kurdistanicus Maroofi & Assadi
  • Crocus hartmannianus Holmboe
  • Crocus kerndorffiorum Pasche (1993)
  • Crocus leichtlinii (Dewar) Bowles
  • Crocus nerimaniae Yüzbasioglu & Varol (2004)
  • Crocus pestalozzae Boiss.
  • Crocus wattiorum (B. Mathew, 1995) B. Mathew (2000)
  • Crocus demirizianus O.Erol & L.Can (2012)
  • Crocus yakarianus Yıldırım & O.Erol (2013)
Series Speciosi: corm tunic splits into rings at the base, leathery or membranous, foliage after the flowers, autumn-flowering, style much divided
  • Crocus pulchellus Herb. – hairy crocus
  • Crocus speciosus M. Bieb. – Bieberstein's crocus, large purple crocus
    • Crocus speciosus subsp. ilgazensis B.Mathew
    • Crocus speciosus subsp. speciosus
    • Crocus speciosus subsp. xantholaimos B.Mathew
Series Orientales: corm with parallel fibers or lightly reticulated, numerous leaves, spring-flowering, style three-forked
Series Flavi: tunics of the corms membranous, split into parallel fibers, spring-flowering, styles much divided
  • Crocus adanensis T. Baytop & B. Mathew (formerly in Series Biflori)
  • Crocus antalyensis Mathew
    • Crocus antalyensis subsp. antalyensis
    • Crocus antalyensis subsp. striatus O.Erol & M.Koçyiğit (2010)
    • Crocus antalyensis subsp. gemicii L.Sik & O.Erol (2011)
  • Crocus candidus E.D. Clarke
  • Crocus flavus Weston – Yellow crocus
    • Crocus flavus subsp. flavus
    • Crocus flavus subsp. dissectus T.Baytop & B.Mathew
    • Crocus flavus subsp. sarichinarensis Rukšans
  • Crocus graveolens Boiss. &Reut.
  • Crocus hyemalis Boiss.
  • Crocus olivieri Gray
    • Crocus olivieri subsp. olivieri – Balkan and Turkey
    • Crocus olivieri subsp. balansae (J.Gay ex Baker) B. Mathew – endemic round İzmir, West-Turkey
    • Crocus olivieri subsp. istanbulensis B. Mathew, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Crocus paschei H. Kerndorff
  • Crocus vitellinus Wahl.
Series Aleppici: tunics of the corms membranous, with split, parallel fibers, foliage produced at the same time as the flowers, fall- or winter-flowering
Series Carpetani: undersurface of the leaves rounded with grooves, upper surface channeled, spring-flowering, style whitish, obscurely divided
Series Intertexti: corm tunic fibrous with fibers interwoven, spring-flowering
Series Laevigatae: corm tunic membranous or splitting into parallel fibers, sometimes leathery, foliage produced at the same time as flowers, autumn-flowering, anthers white, style much divided

ശരത്കാല ക്രോക്കസ്[തിരുത്തുക]

Some species, known as "autumn crocus", flower in late summer and autumn, often before their leaves appear. They should not be confused with a different genus of autumn-flowering plants, Colchicum. Autumn-flowering species of crocus include:

  • C. banaticus (syn. C. iridiflorus)
  • C. cancellatus
  • C. goulimyi
  • C. hadriaticus
  • C. kotschyanus (syn. C. zonatus)
  • C. laevigatus
  • C. ligusticus (syn. C. medius )
  • C. niveus
  • C. nudiflorus
  • C. ochroleucus
  • C. pulchellus
  • C. sativus (saffron crocus)
  • C. serotinus
  • C. speciosus
  • C. tournefortii

C. laevigatus has a long flowering period which starts in late autumn or early winter and may continue into February.


അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Crocus includes photos plus European distribution maps
  3. Innes, C. (1985). The World of Iridaceae: 1–407. Holly Gare International Ltd., Ashington
  4. Peruzzi Lorenzo, Carta Angelino. 2011 "Crocus ilvensis sp. nov. (sect. Crocus, Iridaceae), endemic to Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago, Italy)", Nordic Journal of Botany, 29(1): 6–13. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.2010.01023.x
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; PlantsmanMarch09 എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.

Bibliography[തിരുത്തുക]

  • E.A. Bowles, A Handbook of Crocus and Colchicum for Gardeners, Martin Hopkinson 1924
  • Brian Mathew, Christopher Grey-Wilson, Bulbs, (ill. Marjorie Blamey), Collins, 1981
  • Brian Mathew, Crocus: A Revision of the Genus Crocus, Timber Press, 1983. ISBN 0-917304-23-3
  • Brian Mathew, Flowering Bulbs for the Garden, Collingridge/Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1987. ISBN 0-600-35175-0
  • Novica Randjelovic, David A. Hill, Vladimir Randjelovic, 'The Genus Crocus L. in Serbia'. Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, 1990 (in English)
  • Maw, George. A Monograph of the Genus Crocus. London, Dulau and Co., 1886
  • Rix, Alison. "George Maw, Joseph Hooker and the genus Crocus", Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Volume 25 Issue 2, Pages 176–187, 2008 doi:10.1111/j.1467-8748.2008.00616.x
  • The Pleasures of Crocus, Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture 1996
  • Walters, S. M., et al., editor, The European Garden Flora: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe, both Out-of-Doors and Under Glass, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press, 1984

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