ഫ്രെഞ്ച് പ്രതിരോധം

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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സഖ്യകക്ഷികളിലെ ഭടന്മാരൊടൊപ്പം യുദ്ധം ചെയ്യുന്ന ഫ്രെഞ്ച് റെസിസ്റ്റൻസ് പടയാളികൾ
The Croix de Lorraine, chosen by General Charles de Gaulle as the symbol of the Résistance[1]

ജെർമനിയുടെ നാസിപ്പടയ്ക്കെതിരേയും, രണ്ടാം ലോക മഹായുദ്ധത്തിനോടനുബന്ധിച്ച് വിഷി ഫ്രാൻസിലുണ്ടായ ചാരന്മാർക്കെതിരേയും നടന്ന ഗറില്ലായുദ്ധ തന്ത്രങ്ങളോടേയുള്ള ചെറുകൂട്ടങ്ങളുടെ പ്രതിരോധത്തെ പൊതുവെ ഫ്രെഞ്ച് പ്രതിരോധം എന്ന് വിളിക്കുന്നു(ഫ്രഞ്ച്: La Résistance française).പ്രതിരോധക സെല്ലുകൾ എന്നത് സ്ത്രീകളും,പുരുഷന്മാരും അടങ്ങിയ കൊച്ചു കൊച്ചു സംഘങ്ങളാണ്(മക്വിസ് എന്ന് ഇവരെ ഗ്രാമീണ മേഖലകളിൽ വിളിക്കുന്നു)[2][3] രഹസ്യ പത്രങ്ങൾ പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിക്കുന്നതും,നേരിട്ട് ലഭിച്ച വിവരങ്ങളുടെ ദാതാക്കളും,ശത്രുഭാഗത്ത് കുടുങ്ങികിടക്കുന്ന സഖ്യകക്ഷികളിലെ ഭടന്മാരേയും, പൈലറ്റുമാരേയും രക്ഷിക്കുകയും, ചെയ്യുന്നത് ഇവർ തന്നെയാണ്.

കുറിപ്പുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. Pharand (2001), p. 169
  2. Collins Weitz (1995), p. 50
  3. Kedward (1993), p. 30

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

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  • Burdett, Charles & Gorrara, Claire & Peitsch, Helmut (1999). European Memories of the Second World War. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-936-9. 
  • Burger, Léon (1965). Le Groupe "Mario": une page de la Resistance lorraine. Metz: Imprimerie Louis Hellenbrand. ASIN B0000DOQ1O. 
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  • Cointet, Jean-Paul (2000). Dictionnaire historique de la France sous l'occupation. Paris: Tallandier. ISBN 978-2-235-02234-7. 
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അധിക വായനയ്ക്ക്[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Cobb, Matthew (2009). The Resistance: The French Fight against the Nazis. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-84737-123-2
  • Humbert, Agnès (tr. Barbara Mellor), Résistance: Memoirs of Occupied France, London, Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, 2008 ISBN 978-0-7475-9597-7 (American title: Resistance: A Frenchwoman's Journal of the War, Bloomsbury, USA, 2008); Dutch: Resistance. Dagboek van een Parisienne in het verzet (Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 2008)
  • Knight, Frida (1975). The French Resistance, 1940–44. London: Lawrence and Wishart. ISBN 978-0-85315-331-3
  • Ousby, Ian (1999). Occupation: The Ordeal of France, 1940–44. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6513-1
  • Rousso, Henry (1991). The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France Since 1944. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-93539-6
  • Sapiro, Gisèle. (2014). The French Writers’ War 1940-1953 (1999; English edition 2014); highly influential study of intellectuals online review
  • Schoenbrun, David (1980). Soldiers of the Night, The Story of the French Resistance. New American Library. ISBN 978-0-452-00612-6
  • Porch, Douglas (1995). The French Secret Services: From the Dreyfus Affair to the Gulf War. ISBN 9780374158538

പുറത്തേയ്ക്കുള്ള കണ്ണികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

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