പസഫിക് യുദ്ധം

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
(Pacific War എന്ന താളിൽ നിന്നും തിരിച്ചുവിട്ടതു പ്രകാരം)
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Pacific War
World War II ഭാഗം
Map indicating US landings during the Pacific War
Map showing the main areas of the conflict and Allied landings in the Pacific, 1942–45
തിയതി
7 December 1941 – 2 September 1945
(3 വർഷം, 8 മാസം, 3 ആഴ്ച, 5 ദിവസം)
സ്ഥലം
ഫലംAllied victory
Territorial
changes
Allied occupation of Japan
  • Removal of all Japanese troops occupying parts of the Republic of China and the retrocession of Taiwan to China
  • Liberation of Korea and Manchuria from Japanese rule, followed by the division of Korea
  • Cession of all Japanese-held islands in the Central Pacific Ocean to the United Nations
  • Removal of all Japanese troops from the Australian-governed Solomon Islands and the territories of New Guinea and Papua
  • Seizure and annexation of South Sakhalin and of the Kuril Islands by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is placed under the authority of the United States of America. When the territory fell apart the US gained the territory of the Northern Mariana Islands.
  • Belligerents
    Allies[1]

     United States

     China[lower-alpha 1]

     United Kingdom

     Australia
     Canada
     New Zealand
     Netherlands

     Mexico
     Soviet Union

    and others [lower-alpha 2]
    Axis

     Japan
     Thailand

    and others [lower-alpha 3]
    പടനായകരും മറ്റു നേതാക്കളും
    ശക്തി
    Republic of China (1912–49) 14,000,000[2]
    അമേരിക്കൻ ഐക്യനാടുകൾ 3,621,383+ (1945)[lower-alpha 4]
    British Raj 2,000,000[7]
    സോവ്യറ്റ് യൂണിയൻ 1,669,500 (1945)[8]
    ഓസ്ട്രേലിയ 600,000
    യുണൈറ്റഡ് കിങ്ഡം 400,000[7]
    Netherlands 140,000[9][lower-alpha 5]
    Empire of Japan 7,800,000–7,900,000 (1945)[10][11][12]
    തായ്‌ലൻഡ് 126,500[13]
    Manchukuo, Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction).svg, and others: ~1,000,000+ (1945)[14]
    നാശനഷ്ടങ്ങൾ
    • Military
      4,000,000+ dead (1937–45)
    • Civilian deaths
      26,000,000+ (1937–45)[lower-alpha 7]
    • a Including its islands and neighboring countries
    • b Partially and briefly

    രണ്ടാം ലോകമഹായുദ്ധത്തിന്റെ ഒരു രംഗഭൂമി ആയിരുന്നു ഏഷ്യൻ പസഫിക് യുദ്ധം എന്ന പേരിലും അറിയപ്പെടുന്ന പസഫിക് യുദ്ധം. ഈ യുദ്ധം ശാന്തസമുദ്രത്തിലും, ഏഷ്യ എന്നിവിടങ്ങളിൽ വെച്ചാണ് നടന്നത്.[35]

    പസഫിക് യുദ്ധത്തിൽ ജപ്പാനെതിരെ സഖ്യകക്ഷികൾ എതിരായി. പിന്നീട് തായ്ലാൻഡിന്റെ പിന്തുണയോടെ,  ജർമ്മനിയും ഇറ്റലിയും ചേർന്ന് അച്ചുതണ്ട് ശക്തികൾക്ക് ചെറിയ തോതിൽ പിന്തുണ നൽകി. ജപ്പാനിലെ ഹിരോഷിമയിലും നാഗസാക്കിയിലും അമേരിക്ക അണുബോംബ് പ്രയോഗിച്ചതോടെ ജപ്പാൻ നിരുപാധികം കീഴടങ്ങുകയായിരുന്നു.[36]

    അവലോകനം[തിരുത്തുക]

    യുദ്ധത്തിനുള്ള പേരുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

    Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945

    യുദ്ധകാലത്ത് സഖ്യ രാജ്യങ്ങളിൽ, പസഫിക് യുദ്ധത്തെ പൊതുവേ രണ്ടാം ലോകമഹായുദ്ധത്തിൽ നിന്ന് വേർതിരിച്ചിരുന്നില്യ. ജപ്പാനെതിരായ യുദ്ധം എന്നായിരുന്നു അറിയപ്പെട്ടിരുന്നത്. അമേരിക്കൻ ഐക്യനാടുകളിൽ പസഫിക് രംഗഭൂമി എന്ന പദം ഉപയോഗിക്കപ്പെട്ടു.

    പടിഞ്ഞാറൻ സഖ്യകക്ഷികളുമായുള്ള യുദ്ധവും ചൈനയിൽ നടന്നുകൊണ്ടിരിക്കുന്ന യുദ്ധത്തെയും സൂചിപ്പിക്കാൻ ജപ്പാൻ 1941 ഡിസംബർ 10 ന് കാബിനറ്റ് തീരുമാനത്തെ തുടർന്ന് ഗ്രേറ്റർ ഈസ്റ്റ് ഏഷ്യൻ യുദ്ധം ( Greater East Asia War (大東亜戦争 Dai Tō-A Sensō?) (大東亜戦争, Dai Tō-A Sensō) എന്ന് വിളിച്ചു. ഈ പേര് ഡിസംബർ 12-ന് പൊതുജനമധ്യത്തിൽ പരസ്യപെടുത്തി.[37]


    പങ്കാളികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

    ഇതും കാണുക[തിരുത്തുക]

    • പസഫിക് യുദ്ധം പ്രചാരണങ്ങൾ

    കുറിപ്പുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

    1. At war since 1937
    2. Complete list of nations that fought on the Allied side in the Pacific War: China, the United States, the United Kingdom (including the Fiji Islands, the Straits Settlements and other colonial forces), Tonga (a British protectorate), Australia (including the Territory of New Guinea), the Commonwealth of the Philippines (a United States protectorate), British India, the Netherlands (including Dutch East Indies colonial forces), the Soviet Union, New Zealand, Canada, Mexico, and Mongolia. Free French Naval Forces contributed several warships, such as the Le Triomphant. After the Liberation of France, the French battleship Richelieu was sent to the Pacific. From 1943, the commando group Corps Léger d'Intervention took part in resistance operations in Indochina. French Indochinese forces faced Japanese forces in a coup in 1945. The commando corps continued to operate after the coup until liberation.
      Guerrilla organizations that fought for the Allies include the Chinese Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, the Hukbalahap, the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army, the Manchurian Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, the Korean Liberation Army, the Free Thai Movement and the Việt Minh.
    3. Complete list of nations and groups that fought on the Axis side in the Pacific War: Japan (including Thailand, the puppet government of Manchukuo, Mengjiang, Wang Jingwei regime, and other Chinese collaborationist governments and organizations, the State of Burma, the Provisional Government of Free India, the puppet Second Philippine Republic, and other states in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere). The Vichy French allowed the Japanese to use bases in French Indochina beginning in 1941 following invasion. In addition, Germany and Italy both contributed small naval forces.
    4. Strength of the US Military in Asia and the Pacific as of war's end: Army: 1,770,036,[3] Navy (excluding Coast Guard and Marines): 1,366,716,[4] and Marine Corps: 484,631.[5] These figures do not include the Coast Guard or naval personnel in the China-Burma-India theater.[6]
    5. These numbers do not include the Royal Netherlands Navy.
    6. 111,914 battle deaths (including 13,395 who died as POWs and 5,707 who died of wounds), 49,000+ non-battle deaths,[17] 248,316 wounded, 16,358 captured and returned)[18][19]
    7. Over 17 million Chinese civilian deaths (1937–45);[20] around 4 million civilian deaths from the Dutch East Indies;[21][പേജ് ആവശ്യമുണ്ട്] 1–2 million Indochinese civilians;[22] around 3 million[23] Indian civilian deaths in the Bengal famine of 1943; 0.5 to 1 million[24] Filipino civilian deaths; 250,000[25] to 1,000,000[26] Burmese civilian deaths; 50,000[27] East Timorese civilian deaths; and hundreds of thousands of Malayan, Pacific and other civilian deaths[21][പേജ് ആവശ്യമുണ്ട്]
    8. 2,133,915 Japanese military deaths 1937–45,[28] 1.18 million Chinese collaborator casualties 1937–45 (432,000 dead),[29] 22,000 Burmese casualties,[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്] 5,600 Thai troops killed,[30] and 2,615 Indian National Army (Azad Hind) killed/missing[31]
    9. 460,000 Japanese civilian deaths (338,000 in the bombings of Japan,[32] 100,000 in the Battle of Okinawa, 22,000 in the Battle of Saipan), 543,000 Korean civilian deaths (mostly due to Japanese forced labor projects),[33] 2,000–8,000 Thai civilian deaths[34]

    അവലംബങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

    1. A Decade of American Foreign Policy 1941–1949 Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers, Moscow Archived 8 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
    2. Hastings p. 205
    3. Coakley and Leighton (1989). Global Logistics and Strategy 1943–1945 p. 836
    4. US Navy Personnel in World War II Service and Casualty Statistics, Naval History and Heritage Command Table 9.
    5. King, Ernest J. (1945). Third Report to the Secretary of the Navy p. 221
    6. US Navy Personnel in World War II Service and Casualty Statistics, Naval History and Heritage Command Footnote 2.
    7. 7.0 7.1 Hastings, p. 10.
    8. Beevor: The Second World War p. 776. Total involved in Manchuria
    9. "Chapter 10: Loss of the Netherlands East Indies". The Army Air Forces in World War II: Vol. 1 – Plans & Early Operations. HyperWar. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 31 August 2010.
    10. Cook (1992). Japan at War: an Oral History. New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-039-3. p. 403. Japanese strength is given at 4,335,500 in the Home Islands and 3,527,000 abroad.
    11. Harrison p. 29 Retrieved 10 March 2016
    12. Australia-Japan Research Project, "Dispositions and Deaths" Retrieved 10 March 2016
    13. Meyer, Milton Walter (1997). Asia: A Concise History. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 309. ISBN 9780847680634.
    14. Jowett, pp. 72
    15. Hsu Long-hsuen "History of the Sino-Japanese war (1937–1945)" Taipei 1972
    16. Clodfelter, Michael "Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference", Vol. 2, pp. 956.
    17. C. E. Albertson, "Beneath the Southern Cross" p. xv
    18. "United States Dept. of the Army, Army Battle Casualties and Non Battle Deaths in World War II". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 15 June 2011.
    19. Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 585.
    20. "Chinese People Contribute to WWII". ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 23 April 2009.
    21. 21.0 21.1 Dower, John William (1987), War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. Pantheon
    22. "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". Mailman.anu.edu.au. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 31 October 2010.
    23. Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. London: Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 9780195649543.
    24. Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8. pp. 143–44.
    25. Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556
    26. McLynn, The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph, 1942–1945, p. 1.
    27. Ruas, Óscar Vasconcelos, "Relatório 1946–47", AHU
    28. Bren, John (3 June 2005) "Yasukuni Shrine: Ritual and Memory" Japan Focus. Retrieved on 5 June 2009.
    29. R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century. Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X. Table 5A
    30. Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–96, p. 1057n:
    31. Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556.
    32. Statistics of Democide: Chapter 13: Death By American Bombing, RJ Rummel, University of Hawaii.
    33. Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 19
    34. E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled 'The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain' and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids."
    35. Williamson Murray, Allan R. Millett A War to be Won: Fighting the Second World War, Harvard University Press, 2001, p. 143
    36. "MacArthur orders end of Shinto as Japanese state religion". HISTORY.com. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 1 December 2015.
    37. Jansen 2002, p. 626.

    ഉറവിടങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

    കൂടുതൽ വായനയ്ക്ക്[തിരുത്തുക]

    • Dean, Peter J. McArthur's Coalition: US and Australian operations in the Southwest Pacific Area, 1942-1945 ( University Press of Kansas, 2018)
    • Werner Gruhl (31 December 2011). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931–1945. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-0926-9.
    • Judge, Sean M. et al. The Turn of the Tide in the Pacific War: Strategic Initiative, Intelligence, and Command, 1941-1943 (University Press of Kansas, 2018)

    ബാഹ്യ ലിങ്കുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

    "https://ml.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=പസഫിക്_യുദ്ധം&oldid=2879268" എന്ന താളിൽനിന്ന് ശേഖരിച്ചത്