സോബിബോർ എക്സ്റ്റർമിനേഷൻ ക്യാമ്പ്

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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Sobibór
Extermination camp
Poland Sobibor - death camp mausoleum.jpg
Sobibór extermination camp memorial, pyramid of sand mixed with human ashes
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WW2-Holocaust-Poland.PNG
Location of Sobibór (right of centre) on the map of German extermination camps marked with black and white skulls. Poland's borders before the Second World War
സോബിബോർ എക്സ്റ്റർമിനേഷൻ ക്യാമ്പ് is located in Poland
സോബിബോർ എക്സ്റ്റർമിനേഷൻ ക്യാമ്പ്
Location of Sobibór in Poland today
Coordinates 51°26′50″N 23°35′37″E / 51.44722°N 23.59361°E / 51.44722; 23.59361Coordinates: 51°26′50″N 23°35′37″E / 51.44722°N 23.59361°E / 51.44722; 23.59361
Other names SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor
Known for Genocide during the Holocaust
Location Near Sobibór, General Government (occupied Poland)
Built by
Original use Extermination camp
First built March 1942 – May 1942
Operational 16 May 1942 – 14 October 1943
Number of gas chambers  
3 (expanded to 6)[1]
Inmates Jews mainly from Poland, but also from France, Germany, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union (including POWs)
Number of inmates Est. 600–650 slave labour at any given time
Killed Est. min. 200,000–250,000
Notable inmates Joseph Serchuk, Dov Freiberg, Alexander Pechersky

രണ്ടാം ലോകമഹായുദ്ധ കാലഘട്ടത്തിൽ നിയന്ത്രിത സെക്കന്റ് പോളീഷ് റിപ്പബ്ലിക്കിലെ ജനറൽ ഗവൺമെന്റിന്റെ സെമി കൊളോണിയൽ പൊതു ഭരണകൂടത്തിനകത്ത്, സോബിബൂർ റെയിൽവേ സ്റ്റേഷന് സമീപം എസ്.എസ് നിർമ്മിച്ചതും നടത്തിയിരുന്നതുമായ ഒരു നാസി ജർമ്മൻ ഉന്മൂലന ക്യാമ്പായായിരുന്നു സോബിബോർ എക്സ്റ്റർമിനേഷൻ ക്യാമ്പ് (അല്ലെങ്കിൽ സോബീബോർ / sɔːbibɔːr /പോളിഷ്: [sɔbʲibur]) (Sobibór extermination camp) [2] / soʊbiː - /; [3]ജർമ്മൻ അധിനിവേശ പോളണ്ടിലെ ഹോളോകാസ്റ്റിന്റെ ഏറ്റവും നിർണായക ഘടകം, രഹസ്യ ഓപ്പറേഷൻ റെയ്ൻഹാർഡ് എന്നതിന്റെ ഭാഗമായിരുന്നു ക്യാമ്പ്. പ്രവിശ്യ തലസ്ഥാനമായ ബ്രസ്റ്റ്-ഓൺ-ദി-ബഗ് (പോളീഷിൽ ബ്രസെസ്ക് നഡ് ബുഗീം) യിൽ നിന്ന് 85 കിലോമീറ്റർ തെക്ക് ഗ്രാമത്തിനടുത്തുള്ള വലോദാവയ്ക്ക് (ജർമ്മൻകാർ വെൽസെയ്ക്ക് എന്നും വിളിച്ചിരുന്നു) ഈ ക്യാമ്പ് സ്ഥിതിചെയ്യുന്നു. ഇതിന്റെ ഔദ്യോഗിക ജർമ്മൻ പേര് എസ്.എസ്. സോണ്ടർകോമണ്ടൊ സോബീബൊർ ആയിരുന്നു.[4]

ആജ്ഞയുടെ ശൃംഖല[തിരുത്തുക]

Name Rank Function and Notes Citation
Organisers of the camp (Germans and one former Austrian)      
  Odilo Globocnik SS-Brigadeführer Major-General and SS Police Chief (SS-Polizeiführer) at the time, Head of Operation Reinhard [1] 
  Hermann Höfle SS-Hauptsturmführer  Captain, Coordinator of Operation Reinhard
  Richard Thomalla SS-Obersturmführer First Lieutenant, Head of death camp construction during Operation Reinhard [1] 
  Erwin Lambert SS-Unterscharführer Corporal, Head of gas chamber construction during Operation Reinhard
  Karl Steubl SS-Sturmbannführer Major, Commander of transportation units during Operation Reinhard [5]
  Christian Wirth SS-Hauptsturmführer Captain at the time, Inspector of Operation Reinhard
Commandants (Germans and Austrians)      
 Franz Stangl SS-Obersturmführer First Lieutenant, 28 April 194230 August 1942 transferred to Commandant of Treblinka extermination camp [1] [5]
 Franz Reichleitner  SS-Obersturmführer First Lieutenant, 1 September 194217 October 1943;[1] promoted to Captain (Hauptsturmführer) after Himmler's visit on 12 February 1943 [5]
Deputy commandants (Germans and Austrians)      
 Gustav Wagner SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, Deputy commandant (Quartermaster, sergeant major of the camp) [1] ;[5]
 Johann Niemann SS-Untersturmführer Second Lieutenant, Deputy commandant, killed in the revolt [5]
 Karl Frenzel SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, Commandant of Camp I (forced labor camp) [1] [5]
 Hermann Michel SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, Deputy commandant, gave speeches to trick condemned prisoners into entering gas chambers [5] [6]
Gas chamber executioners (Germans )   
 Erich Bauer SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, operated gas chambers [1] ;[5]
 Kurt Bolender SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, gas chambers' operator [1] [5]
Other staff officers (Germans and Austrians)      
 Ernst Bauch committed suicide in December 1942 on vacation in Berlin from his Sobibor duty [5]
 Rudolf Beckmann SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, killed in revolt [5] 
 Gerhardt Börner SS-Untersturmführer Second Lieutenant [7]
 Paul Bredow SS-Unterscharführer Corporal, managed the "Lazarett" killing station [1] [5]
 Max Bree killed in the revolt [5]
 Arthur Dachsel police sergeant, transferred from Belzec in 1942, burning of corpses (Sonnenstein) [5]
 Werner Karl Dubois SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant [1] [5]
 Herbert Floss SS-Scharführer Sergeant [1] [5]
 Erich Fuchs SS-Scharführer Sergeant [1] [5] [7]
 Friedrich Gaulstich SS-Scharführer Sergeant, killed in the revolt [5] 
 Anton Getzinger [5]
 Hubert Gomerski SS-Unterscharführer Corporal [5]
 Siegfried Graetschus SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, Head of Ukrainian Guard (2/2), killed in the revolt [1] ;[5]
 Ferdinand "Ferdl" Grömer Austrian cook, helped also with gassings [5]
 Paul Johannes Groth supervised sorting of clothes in Lager II
 Lorenz Hackenholt SS-Hauptscharführer First Sergeant
 Josef Hirtreiter SS-Scharführer Sergeant, transferred from Treblinka in October 1943 for a short while [1]
 Franz Hödl  [5]
 Jakob Alfred Ittner SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant [5]
 Robert Jührs SS-Unterscharführer Corporal
 Aleks Kaizer
 Rudolf "Rudi" Kamm [5]
 Johann Klier SS-Untersturmführer Second Lieutenant [5] 
 Fritz Konrad SS-Scharführer Sergeant, killed in the revolt [5] 
 Erich Lachmann SS-Scharführer Sergeant, Head of Ukrainian Guard (1/2) [5]
 Karl Emil Ludwig [5]
 Willi Mentz SS-Unterscharführer Corporal, transferred from Treblinka for a short time in December 1943
 Adolf Müller [5]
 Walter Anton Nowak SS-Scharführer Sergeant, killed in the revolt [1] [5]
 Wenzel Fritz Rehwald [5]
 Karl Richter [5]
 Paul Rost SS-Untersturmführer Second Lieutenant [1]
 Walter "Ryba" (real name: Hochberg) SS-Unterscharführer Corporal, killed in the revolt [5] 
 Klaus Schreiber
 Hans-Heinz Friedrich Karl Schütt SS-Scharführer Sergeant [1] [5]
 Thomas Steffl SS-Scharführer Sergeant, killed in the revolt [5] <
 Ernst Stengelin killed in revolt [5]
 Heinrich Unverhau SS-Unterscharführer Corporal [5]
 Josef Vallaster SS-Scharführer Sergeant, killed in the revolt [5] 
 Otto Weiss commandant of the Bahnhof-kommando at Lager I before Frenzel [5]
 Wilhelm "Willie" Wendland [5]
 Franz Wolf SS-Oberscharführer Staff Sergeant, brother of Josef Wolf (below) [1] [5]
 Josef Wolf SS-Scharführer Sergeant, killed in the revolt [5] 
 Ernst Zierke SS-Unterscharführer Corporal
 Heinrich Barbl SS-Rottenführer Private First Class, pipes for the gas chambers (from Action T4) [5][8]
Wachmänner guards (Ukrainians and Russians)      
Sobibór "Road to Heaven" in 2007
Russian
  • B. Bielakow
  • Ivan Nikiforow
  • Mikhail Affanaseivitch Razgonayev[10]
  • J. Zajcew
Ukrainian
  • Ivan Demjanjuk[11] (alleged; conviction pending appeal not upheld by German criminal court)
  • Emil Kostenko
  • M. Matwiejenko
  • W. Podienko
  • Fiodor Tichonowski

ഇതും കാണുക[തിരുത്തുക]

Notes[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 Lest we forget (14 March 2004), ""Extermination camp Sobibor"". യഥാർത്ഥ സൈറ്റിൽ നിന്ന് 7 March 2005-നു ആർക്കൈവ് ചെയ്തത്. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2005-03-07.  The Holocaust. Retrieved on 17 May 2013.
  2. Howjsay.com
  3. CMU Pronouncing Dictionary
  4. William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (3 ed., 1960). Simon and Schuster. p. 968. ISBN 0671728687. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 Jules Schelvis & Dunya Breur. "Biographies of SS-men – Sobibor Interviews". Sobiborinterviews.nl. NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies. "The core of this website consists of thirteen interviews with survivors of the uprising on 14 October 1943 in the Sobibor extermination camp, originally recorded in 1983 and 1984 forty years after the fact." 
  6. Nizkor Web Site Retrieved on 9 April 2009
  7. 7.0 7.1 Klee, Ernst, Dressen, Willi, Riess, Volker The Good Old Days: The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders. ISBN 1-56852-133-2.
  8. Robin O'Neil (2009). "6". Belzec: Stepping Stone to Genocide. JewishGen.org. ഐ.എസ്.ബി.എൻ. 0976475936. 
  9. "Survivors of the revolt – Sobibor Interviews". sobiborinterviews.nl. 
  10. "Interrogation of Mikhail Affanaseivitch Razgonayev Sobibor Death Camp Wachman - www.HolocaustResearchProject.org". holocaustresearchproject.org. 
  11. BBC News (12 May 2011). "John Demjanjuk guilty of Nazi death camp murders". ശേഖരിച്ചത് 12 May 2011. 

References[തിരുത്തുക]

External links[തിരുത്തുക]