റാലിഡെ

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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റെയിലുകൾ
Temporal range: Early Eocene–Recent
Dusky moorhen442.jpg
Dusky moorhen, Gallinula tenebrosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Subclass: Neornithes
Infraclass: Neognathae
Superorder: Neoaves
Order: Gruiformes
Suborder: Ralli
Family: Rallidae
Vigors, 1825
Genera

Some 40 living, and see below.

പക്ഷികളുടെ ഗോത്രമായ ഗ്രൂയിഫോർമിസിലെ ഒരു കുടുംബമാണ് റാലിഡെ - Rallidae. ഗ്രൂയിഫോർമിസ് ഗോത്രത്തിൽ ഏറ്റവും കൂടുതൽ അംഗങ്ങളുള്ളതും ഈ കുടുംബത്തിലാണ്. ഇന്ത്യയിൽ സാധാരണയായി കണ്ടുവരുന്ന ജലപക്ഷികളായ കുളക്കോഴി, നീലക്കോഴി, ചെങ്കോഴി, പാട്ടക്കോഴി തുടങ്ങിയവ ഈ കുടുംബത്തിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്നു. ചെറിയ ശരീരമുള്ള ഇവ പറക്കലിൽ പിന്നോക്കമാണ്. ഈ കുടുംബത്തിലെ ചില പക്ഷികൾ വംശനാശഭീഷണി നേരിടുന്നു.

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Ballmann, Peter (1969): Les Oiseaux miocènes de la Grive-Saint-Alban (Isère) [The Miocene birds of Grive-Saint-Alban (Isère)]. Geobios 2: 157-204. [French with English abstract] doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(69)80005-7 (HTML abstract)
  • BirdLife International (BLI) (2007): Wake Island Rail BirdLife Species Factsheet. Retrieved 2007-07-04.
  • Boles, Walter E. (2005): A New Flightless Gallinule (Aves: Rallidae: Gallinula) from the Oligo-Miocene of Riversleigh, Northwestern Queensland, Australia. (2005) Records of the Australian Museum 57(2): 179–190. ODF full text
  • Dinkins, Walter (2014): The Rail Bird Hunter's Bible. A History of Rail Bird Hunting in the USA. Virtualbookworm.com Publishing.
  • Gál, Erika; Hír, János; Kessler, Eugén & Kókay, József (1998–99): Középsõ-miocén õsmaradványok, a Mátraszõlõs, Rákóczi-kápolna alatti útbevágásból. I. A Mátraszõlõs 1. lelõhely [Middle Miocene fossils from the sections at the Rákóczi chapel at Mátraszőlős. Locality Mátraszõlõs I.]. Folia Historico Naturalia Musei Matraensis 23: 33-78. [Hungarian with English abstract] PDF fulltext
  • Granjon, L., and G. Cheylan (1989): The fate of black rats (rattus-rattus, l) introduced on an island, as revealed by radio-tracking. Comptes Rendus De L Academie Des Sciences Serie Iii-Sciences De La Vie-Life Sciences 309:571-575.
  • Horsfall, Joseph A. & Robinson, Robert (2003): Rails. In: Perrins, Christopher (ed.): Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books.
  • Hugueney, Marguerite; Berthet, Didier; Bodergat, Anne-Marie; Escuillié, François; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile & Wattinne, Aurélia (2003): La limite Oligocène-Miocène en Limagne: changements fauniques chez les mammifères, oiseaux et ostracodes des différents niveaux de Billy-Créchy (Allier, France) [The Oligocene-Miocene boundary in Limagne: faunal changes in the mammals, birds and ostracods from the different levels of Billy-Créchy (Allier, France)] [French with English abstract]. Geobios 36(6): 719–731. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2003.01.002 (HTML abstract)
  • Kirchman, J. J. (2012): Speciation of flightless rails on islands: A DNA-based phylogeny of the typical rails of the pacific. Auk 129:56-69.
  • Livezey, B. (2003): Evolution of Flightlessness in Rails (Gruiformes: Rallidae): Phylogenetic, Ecomorphological, and Ontogenetic Perspectives. Ornithological Monographs No. 53. (Book)
  • McNab, B.K. (1994): Energy conservation and the evolution of flightlessness in birds. Am. Nat. 144(4): 628-642. HTML abstract and first page image
  • McNab, B.K. (2002): Minimizing energy expenditure facilitates vertebrate persistence on oceanic islands. Ecology Letters 5:693-704.
  • McNab, B.K. & Ellis, H.I. (2006): Flightless rails endemic to islands have lower energy expenditures and clutch sizes than flighted rails on islands and continents. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A - Molecular & Integrative Physiology 145(3): 295-311. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.02.025 (HTML fulltext)
  • Mlíkovský, Jirí (2002): Cenozoic Birds of the World, Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press, Prague. ISBN 80-901105-3-8 PDF fulltext
  • Perret, P., and J. Blondel (1993): Experimental-evidence of the territorial defense hypothesis in insular blue tits. Experientia 49:94-98.
  • Olson, Storrs L. (1985): Section X.D.2.b. Scolopacidae. In: Farner, D.S.; King, J.R. & Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.): Avian Biology 8: 174-175. Academic Press, New York.
  • Slikas, B.; Olson, Storrs L. & Fleischer, R.C. (2002): Rapid, independent evolution of flightlessness in four species of Pacific Island rails (Rallidae): an analysis based on mitochondrial sequence data. J. Avian Biol. 33(1): 5-14. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2002.330103.x (HTML fulltext)
  • Steadman, David William (2006): Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77142-3.
  • Trewick, S.A. (1997): Flightlessness and phylogeny amongst endemic rails (Aves:Rallidae) of the New Zealand region. Biological Sciences. 352(1): 10-18. PMC 1691940 (PDF fulltext)
  • Worthy, Trevor H.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Jones, C.; McNamara, J.A. & Douglas, B.J. (2007): Miocene waterfowl and other birds from central Otago, New Zealand. J. Syst. Palaeontol. 5(1): 1-39. doi:10.1017/S1477201906001957 (HTML abstract)

പുറത്തേക്കുള്ള കണ്ണികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Media related to Rallidae at Wikimedia Commons
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