പ്രയോജനവാദം

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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ശരിയായ മാർഗ്ഗം ഏറ്റവും പ്രയോജനകരമായതും യാതനയും കുറവുകളും കഴിയുന്നത്ര ഒഴിവാക്കുന്നതുമാണെന്ന നൈതിക സിദ്ധാന്തത്തെയാണ് പ്രയോജനവാദം (യൂട്ടാലിറ്റേറിയനിസം) എന്ന് വിളിക്കുന്നത്. ക്ലാസിക്കൽ യൂട്ടാലിറ്റേറിയനിസത്തിന്റെ രണ്ടു പ്രധാന പ്രയോക്താക്കൾ ജെറേമി ബെന്ഥാം, ജോൺ സ്റ്റുവർട്ട് മിൽ എന്നിവരാണ്. തീരുമാനമെടുക്കുവാൻ ഒരാളെ സഹായിക്കുന്ന മാർഗ്ഗമാണിതെന്ന് ഏറ്റവും ലഘുവായി പറയാവുന്നതാണ്. പ്രയോജനവാദത്തിൽ ഒരു പ്രവൃത്തിയുടെ നൈതികമായ ഗുണം അതിന്റെ അനന്തരഫലങ്ങളിൽ നിന്നാണ് തീരുമാനിക്കപ്പെടുന്നത്. ശരിക്കും സംഭവിച്ച ഫലങ്ങൾ, മുൻകൂട്ടിക്കണ്ടവ, നടപ്പിൽ വരണമെന്നുദ്ദേശിച്ചവ എന്നീ ഉപവിഭാഗങ്ങൾക്ക് എന്തുമാത്രം ഊന്നൽ കൊടുക്കണം എന്നതുസംബന്ധിച്ച് അഭിപ്രായ ഐക്യമില്ല.[1][2][3]

കുറിപ്പുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. Bentham, Jeremy (1776). "A Fragment on Government". Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  2. Bentham, Jeremy (2001). The Works of Jeremy Bentham: Published under the Superintendence of His Executor, John Bowring. Volume 1. Adamant Media Corporation. p. 18. ISBN 978-1402163937. 
  3. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism (Project Gutenberg online edition)

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Adams, Robert Merrihew (August 1976). "Motive Utilitarianism". The Journal of Philosophy. 73 (14). 
  • Anscombe, G. E. M. (January 1958). "Modern Moral Philosophy". Philosophy. 33 (124). 
  • Ashcraft, Richard (1991). John Locke: Critical Assessments. Routledge. 
  • Bayles, M. D. (1968). Contemporary Utilitarianism. Anchor Books, Doubleday. 
  • Bentham, Jeremy (January 2009). An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Dover Philosophical Classics). Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 978-0486454528. 
  • Bentham, Jeremy (2001). The Works of Jeremy Bentham: Published under the Superintendence of His Executor, John Bowring. Volume 1. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1402163937. 
  • Bentham, Jeremy; Dumont, Etienne; Hildreth, R (November 2005). Theory of Legislation: Translated from the French of Etienne Dumont. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1402170348. 
  • Brandt, Richard B. (1979). A Theory of the Good and the Right. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-824550-5. 
  • Bredeson, Dean (2011). "Utilitarianism vgs. Dentological Ethics". Applied Business Ethics: A Skills-Based Approach. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-538-45398-1. 
  • Broome, John (1991). Weighing Goods. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 
  • Dancy, Jonathan (2000). "Mill's Puzzling Footnote". Utilitas. 12. doi:10.1017/S095382080000279X. 
  • Dennett, Daniel (1995). Darwin's Dangerous Idea. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-82471-X. 
  • Feldman, Fred (May 1993). "On the Consistency of Act- and Motive-Utilitarianism: A Reply to Robert Adams". Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition. 70 (2). 
  • Gauthier, David (1963). Practical Reasoning: The Structure and Foundations of Prudential and Moral Arguments and Their Exemplification in Discourse. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198241904. 
  • Gay, John (2002). "Concerning the Fundamental Principle of Virtue or Morality". In Schneewind, J. B. Moral Philosophy from Montaigne to Kant. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521003049. 
  • Goodin, Robert E. (May 1995). Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521468060. 
  • Habib, Allen (2008), Promises, in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Halevy, Elie (1966). The Growth of Philosophic Radicalism. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-19-101020-0. 
  • Hall, Everett W. (1949). "The 'Proof' of Utility in Bentham and Mill". Ethics. 60. 
  • Hardin, Russell (May 1990). Morality within the Limits of Reason. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226316208. 
  • Hare, R. M. (1972–1973). "Principles". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series. 73. 
  • Hare, R. M. Moral Thinking. Oxford University Press. 
  • Harsanyi, John C. "Morality and the theory of rational behaviour". In Sen, Amartya; Williams, Bernard. Utilitarianism and Beyond. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Harsanyi, John C. (June 1975). "The American Political Science Review: Can the Maximin Principle Serve as a Basis for Morality? A Critique of John Rawls's Theory of Justice". 69 (2). 
  • Harsanyi, John C. (Fall 1977). "Motive Utilitarianism". Morality and the theory of rational behaviour, Social Research. 44 (3). 
  • Hooker, Brad (October 2002). Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-Consequentialist Theory of Morality. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0199256570. 
  • Hooker, Brad (9 September 2011). "Chapter 8: The Demandingness Objection". In Chappell, Timothy. The problem of moral demandingness: new philosophical essays. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230219403. 
  • Hume, David (2002). "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals". In Schneewind, J. B. Moral Philosophy from Montaigne to Kant. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521003049. 
  • Hutcheson, Francis (2002). "The Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue". In Schneewind, J. B. Moral Philosophy from Montaigne to Kant. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521003049. 
  • Kagan, Shelly (April 1991). The Limits of Morality (Oxford Ethics Series). Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0198239161. 
  • Kagan, Shelly (Summer 1984). "Does Consequentialism Demand too Much? Recent Work on the Limits of Obligation". Philosophy & Public Affairs. 13 (3). 
  • Lyons, David (November 1965). Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism. Oxford University Press(UK). ISBN 978-0198241973. 
  • McCloskey, H.J. (1963). "A Note on Utilitarian Punishment". Mind. 72. 
  • McCloskey, H.J. (October 1957). "An Examination of Restricted Utilitarianism". The Philosophical Review. 66 (4). 
  • Mill, John Stuart (1998). Crisp, Roger, ed. Utilitarianism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-875163-X. 
  • Mill, John Stuart (February 2011). A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive (Classic Reprint). Forgotten Books. ISBN 978-1440090820. 
  • Mill, John Stuart (1981). "Autobiography". In Robson, John. Collected Works, volume XXXI. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-7100-0718-3. 
  • Moore, G.E. (1903). Principia Ethica. Prometheus Books UK. ISBN 0879754982. 
  • Nagel, Thomas (2012). The Possibility of Altruism. Princeton University Press, New Ed edition. ISBN 978-0691020020. 
  • Norcross, Alastair (2009). "Two Dogmas of Deontology: Aggregation, Rights and the Separateness of Persons" (PDF). Social Philosophy and Policy. 26. doi:10.1017/S0265052509090049. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  • Oliphant,, Jill (2007). OCR Religious Ethics for AS and A2. Routledge. 
  • Paley, William (2002). "The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy". In Schneewind, J. B. Moral Philosophy from Montaigne to Kant. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521003049. 
  • Parfit, Derek (January 1986). Reasons and Persons. Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0198249085. 
  • Popkin, Richard H. (October 1950). "A Note on the 'Proof' of Utility in J. S. Mill". Ethics. 61 (1). 
  • Popper, Karl (2002). The Open Society and Its Enemies. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29063-5. 
  • Rawls, John (22 March 2005). A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press; reissue edition. ISBN 978-0674017726. 
  • Rosen, Frederick (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge. 
  • Ryder, Richard D (2002). Painism: A Modern Morality. Centaur Press. 
  • Scheffler, Samuel (August 1994). The Rejection of Consequentialism: A Philosophical Investigation of the Considerations Underlying Rival Moral Conceptions, Second Edition. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0198235118. 
  • Schneewind, J. B. (1977). Sidgwick's Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198245520. 
  • Shaw, William (November 1998). Contemporary Ethics: Taking Account of Utilitarianism. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631202943. 
  • Sidgwick, Henry (January 1981). Methods of Ethics. Hackett Publishing Co, Inc; 7th Revised edition. ISBN 978-0915145287. 
  • Singer, Peter (2001). Animal Liberation. Ecco Press. ISBN 978-0060011574. 
  • Singer, Peter (February 2011). Practical Ethics, Third Edition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521707688. 
  • Slote, Michael (1995). "The Main Issue between Unitarianism and Virtue Ethics". From Morality to Virtue. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509392-6. 
  • Slote, Michael (1984). "Satisficing Consequentialism". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes. 58. 
  • Smart, J. J. C.; Williams, Bernard (January 1973). Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521098229. 
  • Smart, J.J.C. (1956). "Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism". The Philosophical Quarterly. VI. 
  • Smart, R.N. (October 1958). "Negative Utilitarianism". Mind. 67 (268). 
  • Smith, Wilson (July 1954). "William Paley's Theological Utilitarianism in America". William and Mary Quarterly. Third Series. 11 (3). 
  • Soifer, Eldon (2009). Ethical Issues: Perspectives for Canadians. Broadview Press. ISBN 978-1-55111-874-1. 
  • Urmson, J.O. (1953). "The Interpretation of the Moral Philosophy of J.S.Mill". The Philosophical Quarterly. III. 

കൂടുതൽ വായനയ്ക്ക്[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Cornman, James, et al. Philosophical Problems and Arguments - An Introduction, 4th edition Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co., 1992.
  • Glover, Jonathan, Causing Death and Saving Lives, Penguin Books, 1977. A good example of a broadly utilitarian approach. See esp. the last two chapters on war and moral distance.
  • Harwood, Sterling, "Eleven Objections to Utilitarianism," in Louis P. Pojman, ed., Moral Philosophy: A Reader, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co., 2003, and in Sterling Harwood, ed., Business as Ethical and Business as Usual, Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1996, Chapter 7.
  • Mackie, J. L. (1991). "esp. Chapter 6, Utilitarianism". Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140135589. 
  • Martin, Michael, "A Utilitarian Kantian Principle," Philosophical Studies, (with H. Ruf), 21, 1970, pp. 90–91.
  • Rachels, James; Rachels, Stuart (2012). "esp. Chapters 7&8, The Utilitarian Approach & The Debate of Utilitarianism". The Elements of Moral Philosophy. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 978-0078038242. 
  • Scheffler, Samuel (1988). Consequentialism and its Critics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198750734. 
  • Silverstein, Harry S. A Defence of Cornman's Utilitarian Kantian Principle, Philosophical Studies (Dordrecht u.a.) 23, 212–215. 1972
  • Singer, Peter (1993). "esp. Chapter 19&20, Consequentialism & The Utility and the Good". A Companion to Ethics (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631187851. 
  • Singer, Peter. The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1981. [ISBN 0-374-15112-1]
  • Stokes, Eric. The English Utilitarians and India, Clarendon Press, 1963. [ASIN B0026QQ5GE]
  • Sumner, L. Wayne, Abortion: A Third Way, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Williams, Bernard (1993). "esp. Chapter 10, Utilitarianism". Morality: An Introduction to Ethics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521457293. 

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