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കോൺസ്റ്റൻസ് ഫെനിമോർ വൂൾസൺ

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
കോൺസ്റ്റൻസ് ഫെനിമോർ വൂൾസൺ
Photograph of Woolson, c. 1887
Photograph of Woolson, c. 1887
ജനനം(1840-03-05)മാർച്ച് 5, 1840
Claremont, New Hampshire
മരണംജനുവരി 24, 1894(1894-01-24) (പ്രായം 53)
Venice, Italy
അന്ത്യവിശ്രമംProtestant Cemetery, Rome[1]
തൂലികാ നാമംAnne March (used for The Old Stone House)
GenreNovel, short story, poetry, travel narrative
ബന്ധുക്കൾJames Fenimore Cooper (great uncle)

കോൺസ്റ്റൻസ് ഫെനിമോർ വൂൾസൺ (ജീവിതകാലം : മാർച്ച് 5, 1840 മുതൽ ജനുവരി 24, 1894 വരെ) ഒരു അമേരിക്കൻ നോവലിസ്റ്റ്, കവയിത്രി, ചെറുകഥാകൃത്ത് എന്നീ നിലകളിൽ പ്രസിദ്ധയായിരുന്നു.

ജീവിതരേഖ[തിരുത്തുക]

ന്യൂഹാംഷെയറിലെ ക്ലെയർമോണ്ടിലാണു ജനിച്ചതെങ്കിലും സ്കാർലറ്റ് ഫീവർ[2]  പിടിപെട്ട് (ഒരുതരം ജ്വരം) മൂന്നു സഹോദരിമാർ മരണപ്പട്ടതിനുശേഷം കുടുംബം താമസിയാതെ ഒഹിയോയിലെ ക്ലീവ്‍ലാൻറിലേയ്ക്കു താമസം മാറ്റിയിരുന്നു. വൂൾസൺ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം നടത്തിയത് ക്ലിവ്‍ലാൻറ് ഫീമെയിൽ സെമിനാരിയിലും ന്യൂയോർക്കിലെ ഒരു ബോർഡിംഗ് സ്കൂളിലുമായിട്ടായിരുന്നു. തൻറെ ബാല്യകാലത്തും യൌവ്വനകാലത്തും അവർ അമേരിക്കൻ ഐക്യനാടുകളുടെ മദ്ധ്യപടിഞ്ഞാറൻ പ്രദേശങ്ങൾ, വടക്കുകിഴക്കൻ മേഖലകൾ എന്നിവിടങ്ങളിലൂടെ നീണ്ട യാത്രകൾ നടത്തിയിരുന്നു.

1880 ൽ അവരുടെ ആദ്യനോവലായ “ആൻ” പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിക്കപ്പെട്ടു. തൊട്ടുപിന്നാലെയുള്ള വർഷങ്ങളിൽ “ഈസ്റ്റ് എഞ്ചൽസ്” (1886), “ജൂപ്പിറ്റർ ലൈറ്റ്സ്” (1889), “ഹൊറേസ് ചേസ്” (1894) എന്നിങ്ങനെ മൂന്നു നോവലുകൾകൂടി പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിക്കപ്പെട്ടിരുന്നു.1883 ൽ വൂൾസിൻറേതായി ഒരു ചെറുനോവൽ “ഫോർ ദ മേജർ” എന്നപേരിൽ പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിക്കപ്പെട്ടിരുന്നു. യുദ്ധാനന്തരമുള്ള തെക്കൻ പ്രദേശങ്ങളെ സംബന്ധിച്ചു രചിച്ച ഈ ചെറു നോവൽ അവരുടെ ഏറ്റവും മികച്ച ഫിക്ഷൻ എഴുത്തുകളിലൊന്നായി കണക്കാക്കപ്പെടുന്നു. 1889-1890 നുമിടയ്ക്കുള്ള ശൈത്യകാലത്ത് അവർ ഈജിപ്തിലേക്കും പിന്നെ ഗ്രീസിലേയ്ക്കും യാത്ര ചെയ്യുകയും ഈ യാത്രകൾ “Mentone”, “Cairo and Corfu”  എന്നീ പേരുകളിലുള്ള യാത്രാവിവരണങ്ങൾ എഴുതുന്നതിനു കാരണമാകുകയും ചെയ്തു.[1]ഇത് അവരുടെ മരണശേഷം 1896 ലാണ് പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിക്കപ്പെട്ടത്.

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Homeward Bound, by Sharon L. Dean, Ardent Media, 1995, pg 38
  2. Moore, Rayburn S. (1932). Constance Fenimore Woolson. Ardent Media. p. 18.
  3. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 64 (December 1880): 28-45 (Ch. 1-2); 64 (January 1881): 218-238 (Ch. 3-4); 64 (February 1881): 399-415 (Ch. 5-6); 64 (March 1881): 556-572 (Ch. 7-8); 64 (April 1881): 718-727 (Ch. 9); 64 (May 1881): 847-863 (Ch. 10-11). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1882; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1883; New York: Harper & Brothers, [1897?]; New York: Harper & Brothers (Biographical Edition) 1899; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1900, 1902; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1910; New York: Arno, 1982, 1997; Temecula, CA : Reprint Services Co., 1999.
  4. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 65 (November 1882): 907-917 (Ch. 1); 66 (December 1882): 93-105 (Ch. 2-3); 66 (January 1883): 243-250 (Ch. 4); 66 (February 1883): 405-414 (Ch. 5); 66 (March 1883): 564-571 (Ch. 6); 66 (April 1883): 749-764 (Ch. 7). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1883; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1883; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1911; in For The Major and Selected Short Stories, edited by Rayburn S. Moore. New Haven, CT: New College and UP, 1967; New York: AMS, 1970. Rpt. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Per il Maggiore, edited and translated by Edoardo Grego. Palermo, Italy: Sellerio, 2005.
  5. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 70 (January 1885): 246-264 (Ch. 1); 70 (February 1885): 466-483 (Ch. 2-3); 70 (March 1885): 613-631 (Ch. 4-5); 70 (April 1885): 781-799 (Ch. 6); 70 (May 1885): 879-896 (Ch. 7); 71 (June 1885): 102-121 (Ch. 8); 71 (July 1885): 284-304 (Ch. 9-10); 71 (August 1885): 451-473 (Ch. 11-13); 71 (September 1885): 522-546 (Ch. 14-15); 71 (October 1885): 691-713 (Ch. 16-18); 71 (November 1885): 901-908 (Ch. 19); 72 (December 1885): 115-124 (Ch. 20); 72 (January 1886): 188-210 (Ch. 21-23); 72 (February 1886): 382-404 (Ch. 24-25); 72 (March 1886): 527-545 (Ch. 26-28); 72 (April 1886): 774-788 (Ch. 29); 72 (May 1886): 949-968 (Ch. 30-32). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1886, 1898; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1886; Temecula, CA : Reprint Services Co., 1999.
  6. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 78 (January 1889): 240-255 (Ch. 1-4); 78 (February 1889): 435-452 (Ch. 5-8); 78 (March 1889): 598-610 (Ch. 9-12); 78 (April 1889): 703-722 (Ch. 13-16); 78 (May 1889): 951-958 (Ch. 17-18); 79 (June 1889): 114-123 (Ch. 19-21); 79 (July 1889): 265-282 (Ch. 22-26); 79 (August 1889): 415-431 (Ch. 27-30); 79 (September 1889): 583-599 (Ch. 31-35). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1889; London: Sampson Low & Company, 1889; New York: Harper & Brothers, 1900; Temecula, CA : Reprint Services Co., 1999.
  7. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 86 (January 1893): 198-211 (Ch. 1-2); 86 (February 1893): 438-454 (Ch. 3-4); 86 (March 1893): 596-613 (Ch. 5-7); 86 (April 1893): 753-770 (Ch. 8-9); 86 (May 1893): 882-897 (Ch. 10-12); 87 (June 1893): 140-149 (Ch.13-14); 87 (July 1893): 276-286 (Ch. 15-17); 87 (August 1893): 414-423 (Ch. 18-19); 87 (September 1893): 595-602 (Ch. 20-21); 87 (October 1893): 755-770 (Ch. 22-24). Rpt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1894; London: Osgood, McLlvaine & Company, 1894; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Literature house, 1970, 1984.
  8. Harper’s Bazar 3 (December 31, 1870): 842. Rpt. Benedict 3: 272.
  9. In Memoriam of George S. Benedict. [n. p.: n. p.], 1871: 80. Rpt. Benedict 3: 649-650.
  10. In Memoriam of George S. Benedict. [n. p.: n. p.], 1871. Rpt. Benedict 4(1932): 495.
  11. In Memoriam of George S. Benedict. [n.p.: n.p.], 1871.
  12. Lippincott’s Magazine 9 (January 1872): 98. Reprint. Benedict 1: 75-77.
  13. Appletons’ Journal 7 (March 9, 1872): 273. Rpt. New York Evangelist 61:42 (October 16, 1890): 6; Benedict 2: 83-85; in American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century, edited by John Hollander. New York: Library of America, 1993: 393-394.
  14. Appletons’ Journal 7 (June 22, 1872): 686. Rpt. Benedict 1: 284; Benedict 4 (1932): 418.
  15. Old and New 5 (January 1872): 61. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 427.
  16. Massachusetts Ploughman and New England Journal of Agriculture. 31:35 (May 25, 1872): 4; The Galaxy 13 (June 1872): 816. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 426; Nineteenth-Century American Women Poets, edited by Paula Bennett. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
  17. The Atlantic Monthly 30 (October 1872): 461. Rpt. Benedict 3: 651; Benedict 4 (1932): 548-549.
  18. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (August 1872): 444. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 428.
  19. Appletons’ Journal 8 (October 12, 1872): 413. Reprint. Benedict 1: 190; Benedict 4 (1932): 429; in The Anthology of Western Reserve Literature, edited by David R. Anderson and Gladys Haddad. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1992.
  20. The New York Evening Mail, September 14, 1872: 1.
  21. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (October 1872): 753. Reprint. The Chautauquan 18:1 (October 1893): 122.
  22. Appletons’ Journal 8:196 (December 28, 1872): 724.
  23. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (July 1872): 168. Reprint. Benedict 1: 198-199; Benedict 4 (1932): 413-414.
  24. Ohio Farmer 22:22 (April 12, 1873): 346; The Atlantic Monthly 31 (June 1873): 669-670. Reprint. Benedict 2: 85-87; Benedict 4 (1932): 85-87.
  25. Appletons’ Journal 10 (July 12, 1873): 33-34. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 415-416.
  26. Harper’s Bazar 6 (February 8, 1873): 90.
  27. Appletons’ Journal 4 (February 8, 1873): 210.
  28. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 46 (March 18, 1873): 508. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 77-79.
  29. Ohio Farmer 22:15 (April 12, 1873): 234; Lippincott’s Magazine 6 (February 1873): 59-60. Rpt. Benedict 4 (1932): 542-544.
  30. Appletons’ Journal 10 (October 4, 1873): 419.
  31. Appletons’ Journal 10 (November 8, 1873): 597.
  32. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 47 (July 1873): 274.
  33. Appletons’ Journal 10 (September 6, 1873): 289-290. Reprint. Benedict 1: 239-241; Benedict 4 (1932): 464-467.
  34. Appletons’ Journal 10 (December 6, 1873): 723. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 547-548.
  35. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 47 (October 1873): 727. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 544-545.
  36. Appletons’ Journal 12 (July 11, 1874): 33-34. Reprint. Benedict 1: 236-238; Benedict 4 (1932): 459-462.
  37. Appletons’ Journal 12 (September 5, 1874): 289-290.
  38. Appletons’ Journal 12 (October 17, 1874): 500. Reprint. Benedict 4 (1932): 430.
  39. Appletons’ Journal 11 (March 21, 1874): 372. Reprint. Saturday Evening Post 53:37 (April 11, 1874): 3; Benedict 1: 235; Benedict 4 (1932): 463; in American Anthology, edited by Edmund Stedman. Boston, MA: Riverside, 1900: 460-461; in The Home Book of Verse, edited by Burton Stevenson. Boston: Henry Holt, 1953.
  40. The Galaxy 18 (October 1874): 482-483. Reprint. Benedict 1: 232; Benedict 4 (1932): 458-59; in American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century, edited by John Hollander. New York: Library of America, 1993. Vol. 2: 394-95; in Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives, edited by Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville, TN: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  41. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (December 1874): 66. Reprint. Benedict 1: 230; Benedict 4 (1932): 457-58.
  42. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (December 1874): 24.
  43. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (January 1875): 171.
  44. Appletons’ Journal 4 (December 4, 1875): 705-06.
  45. Appletons’ Journal 1 n.s. (September 18, 1876): 282.
  46. Appletons’ Journal 1 n.s. (July 1876): 47-48.
  47. Appletons’ Journal 1 n.s. (December 1876): 537. Reprint. Benedict 3: 225-26.
  48. Harper’s Bazar 9 (July 8, 1876): 433. Reprint. Benedict 3: 133-134; Benedict 4:(1932): 499.
  49. Harper’s Bazar 9 (April 1, 1876): 210. Rpt. Benedict 3: 630.
  50. The New Century for Woman No. 2 (May 20, 1876): 1. Rpt. Nineteenth-Century American Women Poets, edited by Paula Bennett. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
  51. Appletons’ Journal 15 (May 20, 1876): 656. Rpt. Saturday Evening Post 55:49 (July 1, 1876): 8; Zion’s Herald 66:51 (December 19, 1888): 406; Benedict 2: 79-81; Benedict 4 (1932): 79-81.
  52. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 53 (July 1876): 216. Rpt. The Independent 28:1453 (October 5, 1876): 27.
  53. The New Century for Woman No. 9 (July 8, 1876): 67.
  54. Appletons’ Journal 2 n.s. (June 1877): 539. Rpt. Benedict 2: 83; Benedict 4 (1932): 83.
  55. Appletons’ Journal 2 n.s. (January 1877): 60-67; 2 n.s. (February 1877): 140-147. Reprint. New York: Appleton and Company, 1877, 1885, 1890, 1893; Alexandria, VA: Chadwick-Healey, 1996; She Wields a Pen: American Women Poets of the Nineteenth Century, edited by Janet Gray. Iowa City, IA: U of Iowa P, 1997.
  56. Appletons’ Journal 3 n.s. (September 1877): 270.
  57. Harper’s Bazar 11 (September 7, 1878): 578.
  58. Appletons’ Journal 5 n.s. (September 1878): 376.
  59. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 68 (January 1884): 216. Reprint. New York Evangelist 55:4 (January 24, 1884): 6; Benedict 2: 178; Benedict 4 (1932): 178; in Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives, edited by Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville, TN: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  60. Holograph in American War Ballads and Lyrics. New York: Putnam, 1889. Reprint. Benedict 3: 224-25.
  61. Current Literature 4:3 (March 1890): 224.
  62. Benedict 4 (1932): 417. Reprint. In Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives, edited by Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville, TN: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  63. Benedict 4 (1932): 419.
  64. Benedict 3: 630.
  65. Benedict 4 (1932): 496.
  66. Benedict 3: 650.
  67. Benedict 4 (1932): 546-547.
  68. Benedict 4(1932): 497-98.
  69. Benedict 2: 81-82.
  70. Holograph ms. Clare Benedict Collection, Folder 82. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio
  71. Miss Woolson’s Poetry Book, Constance Fenimore Woolson Papers, Container 3, Folder 41. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio.
  72. Miss Woolson’s Poetry Book, Constance Fenimore Woolson Papers, Container 3, Folder 41. Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio.
  73. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 41 (July 1870): 282- 85. Rpt. Benedict 1: 268-76.
  74. Putnam’s Magazine n.s. 6 (July 1870): 62-69. Rpt. Benedict 1: 278-83 and 2 (1932): 420-25.
  75. Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Dec. 24, 1870. Rpt. Benedict 1: 316-18, 325-26.
  76. The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 10, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 319-21, 325.
  77. Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 14, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 326-29.
  78. Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 21, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 321-25.
  79. Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Jan. 28, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 329-30.
  80. Supplement to The Daily Cleveland Herald, Feb. 4, 1871. Rpt. Benedict 1: 330-32.
  81. Appletons’ Journal 6 (Sept. 9, 1871): 290-93.
  82. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 44 (Dec. 1871): 20-30. Rpt. Benedict 1: 49-57.
  83. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (July 1872): 161-68.
  84. Appletons’ Journal 8 (July 27, 1872): 85-92.
  85. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 45 (Sept. 1872): 518-33. Rpt. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  86. Appletons’ Journal 9 (Mar. 8, 1873): 321-22. Rpt. Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 279-91. Benedict 1: 200-01.
  87. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 47 (June 1873): 27-36.
  88. Lippincott’s Magazine 7 (Nov. 1873): 606-11.
  89. Appletons’ Journal 11 (May 16, 1874): 614-16.
  90. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (Dec. 1874): 1-25 (Part I); 50 (Jan. 1875): 165-85 (Part II). Rpt. Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  91. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 50 (Apr. 1875): 617-36.
  92. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 52 (Dec. 1875): 1-24.
  93. Picturesque America.'Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 393-411.
  94. Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 279-91.
  95. Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 1: 510-49. Partial rpt. “The Spirit of the Lakes.” The Mentor 8 (October 1920): 34.
  96. Picturesque America. Ed. William Cullen Bryant. 2 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 2: 146-167.
  97. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 52 (Jan. 1876): 161-79.
  98. Christian Union 22: 9 (Sept. 1, 1880): 165-66.
  99. The Christian Union 24 (July 27, 1881): 76-77. Rpt. Benedict 2: 247-56; Benedict 4 (1932): 247-56.
  100. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 68 (Jan. 1884): 189-216 (Ch. 1); 68 (Feb. 1884): 367-91 (Ch. 2). Rpt. Mentone, Cairo, and Corfu. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896. Benedict 2: 163-77; Benedict 4 (1932): 163-77; Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  101. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 83 (Oct.-Nov. 1891): 651-74, 828-55. Rpt. Mentone, Cairo, and Corfu. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896. Benedict 2: 344-63; Benedict 4 (1932): 344-63; Constance Fenimore Woolson: Selected Stories and Travel Narratives'. Ed. Victoria Brehm and Sharon Dean. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2004.
  102. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 85 (Aug. 1892): 351-370. Rpt. Mentone, Cairo, and Corfu. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896. Benedict 2: 307-39; Benedict 4 (1932): 307-39.
  103. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1896.