കൊളംബിയ നദി

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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Columbia River
Aerial view of a large river winding through a mountainous gorge. It passes over a dam stretching in four segments from bank to bank across three intervening islands. Highways, passing by clusters of buildings here and there on both banks, run parallel to the river. Whitewater and foam curl downriver from one of the central segments.
Name origin: Captain Robert Gray's ship, Columbia Rediviva
Nickname: Big River, the River of the West, River Oregon[1]
രാജ്യങ്ങൾ United States, Canada
സംസ്ഥാനങ്ങൾ Washington, Oregon
Province British Columbia
പോഷക നദികൾ
 - ഇടത് Spillimacheen River, Beaver River, Illecillewaet River, Incomappleux River, Kootenay River, Pend Oreille River, Spokane River, Snake River, John Day River, Deschutes River, Willamette River
 - വലത് Kicking Horse River, Blaeberry River, Canoe River, Kettle River, Sanpoil River, Okanogan River, Entiat River, Wenatchee River, Yakima River, Lewis River, Cowlitz River
പട്ടണങ്ങൾ Revelstoke, BC, Wenatchee, WA, East Wenatchee, WA, Tri-Cities, WA, The Dalles, OR, Hood River, OR, Portland, OR, Vancouver, WA, Longview, WA, Astoria, OR
സ്രോതസ്സ് Columbia Lake
 - സ്ഥാനം British Columbia, Canada
 - ഉയരം 2,690 ft (820 m) [2]
 - നിർദേശാങ്കം 50°13′35″N 115°51′05″W / 50.22639°N 115.85139°W / 50.22639; -115.85139 [3]
അഴിമുഖം Pacific Ocean, at Clatsop County, Oregon / Pacific County, Washington
 - ഉയരം 0 ft (0 m)
 - നിർദേശാങ്കം 46°14′39″N 124°3′29″W / 46.24417°N 124.05806°W / 46.24417; -124.05806Coordinates: 46°14′39″N 124°3′29″W / 46.24417°N 124.05806°W / 46.24417; -124.05806 [4]
നീളം 1,243 mi (2,000 കി.m) [5]
നദീതടം 258,000 sq mi (668,000 കി.m2)
Discharge for mouth (average); max and min at The Dalles, Oregon, 188.9 mile (304.0 കി.m) from the mouth
 - ശരാശരി 265,000 cu ft/s (7,500 m3/s) [6][7][8]
 - max 1,240,000 cu ft/s (35,100 m3/s)
 - min 12,100 cu ft/s (300 m3/s)
Three-color map of the Columbia River watershed. The watershed is shaped roughly like a funnel with its wide end to the east and its narrow end along the border between Washington and Oregon as it nears the Pacific Ocean. The watershed extends into the western US states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana, and the western Canadian province of British Columbia as far east as its border with Alberta. The river itself makes a hairpin turn from north-west to south in British Columbia and another sharp turn from south to west as it nears Oregon.
Columbia River drainage basin
Wikimedia Commons: Columbia River

പസിഫിക് സമുദ്രത്തിലേക്കൊഴുകുന്ന വടക്കേ അമേരിക്കയിലെ ഒരു നദിയാണ് കൊളംബിയ നദി(Columbia River).[9] കാനഡയിലെ ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് കൊളംബിയ പ്രവിശ്യയിൽ റോക്കി മലനിരകളിലാണ് ഈ നദിയിടെ ഉത്ഭവസ്ഥാനം.

അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. Holbrook 1956.
  2. Marsh, James H. (2013). "Columbia River". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation. ശേഖരിച്ചത് September 30, 2015.
  3. "Columbia Lake". Canadian Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada. 2015. ശേഖരിച്ചത് September 29, 2015.
  4. "Columbia River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. November 28, 1980. ശേഖരിച്ചത് April 1, 2008.
  5. "The Columbia River". Columbia River Keeper. 2013. ശേഖരിച്ചത് December 5, 2013.
  6. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; USGSrivers എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.
  7. Kimbrough, R. A.; Ruppert, G. P.; Wiggins, W. D.; Smith, R. R.; Kresch, D. L. (2006). "Water Data Report WA-05-1: Klickitat and White Salmon River Basins and the Columbia River from Kennewick to Bonneville Dam" (PDF). Water Resources Data-Washington Water Year 2005. United States Geological Survey. ശേഖരിച്ചത് April 1, 2008.
  8. Loy et al. 2001, പുറങ്ങൾ. 164–65.
  9. According to the United States Geological Survey fact sheet,"Largest Rivers in the United States", "Rivers are considered large on the basis of one or more of three characteristics: total length from source to mouth, area of basin (watershed) drained by the stream, and average rate of flow (discharge) at the mouth." The Columbia is the largest river of the Pacific Northwest in all three senses.
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