ലോകത്തിലെ കാപ്പിക്കുരു ഇനങ്ങൾ

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

ലോകത്തിലെ കാപ്പിക്കുരു ഇനങ്ങളെക്കുറിച്ചു പ്രതിപാദിക്കുന്നു ഈ ലേഖനം.

പ്രധാന ലേഖനം: കാപ്പിക്കുരു
List and origin of arabica varieties TIF
പേര് വർഗ്ഗം പ്രദേശം കുറിപ്പുകൾ Ref
അരുഷ അറബിക്ക ടാൻസാനിയയിലെ മൌണ്ട് മെരു, പപ്പുവ ന്യൂഗിനിയ Typica variety or a French Mission. [1]
Bergendal, Sidikalang അറബിക്ക ഇന്തോനേഷ്യ Typica varieties which survived the leaf rust outbreak of the 1880s; most of the other Typica in Indonesia was destroyed.
Blue Mountain അറബിക്ക Blue Mountains region of Jamaica. Also grown in Kenya, Hawaii, Haiti, Papua New Guinea (where it is known as PNG Gold) and Cameroon (where it is known as Boyo). Typica, known to have some resistance to coffee berry disease. [2]
Bourbon അറബിക്ക Réunion, Rwanda, ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക. Around 1708 the French planted coffee on the island of Bourbon (now called Réunion) in the middle of the Indian Ocean, all probably from the same parent stock – the plant the Dutch gave them. Unsurprisingly, it mutated slightly and was planted throughout Brazil in the late 1800s and eventually spread through Latin America. Bourbon produces 20–30% more fruit than Typica|Typica varieties. El Salvador is known as the Bourbon Country.
Catuai അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക This is a hybrid of Mundo Novo and Caturra bred in Brazil in the late 1940s.[3]
Catimor Interspecific hybrid ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക, ഇൻഡോനേഷ്യ This is cross between Timor coffee and Caturra coffee. It was created in Portugal in 1959.[3]
Caturra അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക, മദ്ധ്യ അമേരിക്ക This coffee varietal was developed by the Alcides Carvalho Coffee Center ( Centro de Cafe ) of the IAC, Instituto Agronomico of Campinas, São Paulo State in Brazil. In 1937, IAC received seed samples of genetic materials originated on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. It was from Red Caturra and yellow Caturra cultivars. These two cultivars originated by natural mutation of Bourbon Red, originally a tall coffee shrub, found in the Serra do Caparaó, which is now a mountainous National Park north east of the city of Rio de Janeiro.[4] It produces a higher yield than Bourbon, and this is generally due to the plant being shorter and with less distance between the branches. A relatively recently selected botanical variety of the Coffea arabica species that generally matures more quickly, produces more coffee, and is more disease resistant than older, traditional arabica varieties.[5] In fact this mutation is not unique; it led to the formation of the Pacas variety in El Salvador (from Bourbon) and the Villa Sarchi in Costa Rica (from Bourbon). Genetically it is very similar to Bourbon although it usually produces a poorer cup quality but this is mainly due to the variety yielding more.[3]
Charrieriana Not yet named കാമറൂൺ This is a newly found variety from Cameroon. It has gained some press recently due to its caffeine-free nature. Not yet grown commercially, but it probably will be.[6]
Colombian അറബിക്ക കൊളമ്പിയ Coffee was first introduced to the country of Colombia in the early 1800s. Today Maragogipe, Caturra, Typica|Typica and Bourbon cultivars are grown. When Colombian coffee is freshly roasted it has a bright acidity, is heavy in body and is intensely aromatic. Colombia accounts for about 12% of the coffee market (by value) in the world, third in volume after Vietnam and Brazil.
Ethiopian Harar അറബിക്ക എത്യോപ്യ From the region of Harar, Ethiopia. Known for its complex, fruity flavor that resembles a dry red wine. All three Ethiopian varieties are trademarked names with the rights owned by Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Sidamo അറബിക്ക എത്യോപ്യ From the Sidamo (now Oromia) region of Ethiopia as well. All three Ethiopian varieties are trademarked names with the rights owned by Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Yirgacheffe അറബിക്ക എത്യോപ്യ From the Yirgachefe district in the Gedeo Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia. All three Ethiopian varieties are trademarked names with the rights owned by Ethiopia.[7]
French Mission അറബിക്ക ആഫ്രിക്ക French Mission is actually Bourbon that was planted in East Africa by French Missionaries around 1897.[8]
Gesha / Geisha T.2722 അറബിക്ക Ethiopia, Tanzania, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Peru Gesha or Geisha variety, grown in the highlands of Boquete in Chiriquí Province, Panama, highly sought after at auction, achieving high prices. Originally from the village of Gesha, Ethiopia. It was planted in the 1950s as a rust resistant crop and rediscovered in the early 2000s. The most expensive varietal at coffee auctions, fetching $350.25USD in 2013.[9]
Guadeloupe Bonifieur അറബിക്ക Guadeloupe [10]
Hawaiian Kona അറബിക്ക ഹാവായ് Grown on the slopes of Hualalai and Mauna Loa in the Kona District on the Big Island of Hawaii. Coffee was first introduced to the Islands by Chief Boki, the Governor of Oahu, in 1825.
ജാവ Arabica, Robusta and interspecific hybrids ഇൻഡോനേഷ്യ From the island of Java, in Indonesia. This coffee was once so widely traded that "java" became a slang term for coffee. Java encompasses a regional style, not a cultivar of coffee.
K7 അറബിക്ക ആഫ്രിക്ക A Kenyan selection of French Mission Bourbon selected at Legelet Estate in Muhoroni, Kenya. Selected based on cupping trials.
Maragogipe അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക Typica. It was first discovered near Maragogipe, in Brazil's state Bahia. Maragogype is well known for producing big beans.
Maragaturra അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക Maragaturra is a man-made hybrid plant between Caturra and Maragogype.|It was first bred in order to capture the flavor profile of Maragogype with the higher yield and efficiency of the Caturra Varietal.
Mayagüez അറബിക്ക ആഫ്രിക്ക A Bourbon cultivar grown in Rwanda.
Mocha അറബിക്ക യെമൻ Yemeni coffee traded through the once major port of Mocha. Not to be confused with the preparation style (coffee with cocoa).
Mundo Novo അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക Mundo Novo is a hybrid between Bourbon and Typica|Typica, crossed in the 1940s.
Orange, Yellow Bourbon അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക Red Bourbon and Orange Bourbon are types of Bourbon that have been selected from spontaneous mutation.
Pacamara അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക Pacamara is a hybrid between the Bourbon mutation Pacas and Maragogype. It was bred in El Salvador in 1958 probably to achieve a Typica|Typica variety that produces larger beans.
Pacas അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക A natural mutation of the Bourbon variety found in El Salvador in 1949.
Pache Colis അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക Pache Colis is a hybrid between Pache Comum and Caturra. This variety produces distinctly larger fruit and roughly textured foliage.
Pache Comum അറബിക്ക ലാറ്റിൻ അമേരിക്ക Typica first found in Santa Rosa, Guatemala.
Ruiru 11 അറബിക്ക കെനിയ Ruiru 11 was released in 1985 by the Kenyan Coffee Research Station. While the variety is generally disease resistant, it produces a lower cup quality than K7, SL28 and 34.[11]
S795 അറബിക്ക ഭാരതം. ഇന്തോനേഷ്യ Probably the most commonly planted Arabica in India and Southeast Asia,[12] known for its balanced cup and subtle flavour notes of mocca. Released during the 1940s, it is a cross between the Kents and S.288 varieties.[12]
Santos അറബിക്ക ബ്രസീൽ Brazil Santos is usually used as a grading term for Brazilian coffee rather than a variety of Arabica. The name refers to the port in Brazil where coffee passed through, and was regarded as higher quality than "Brazilian coffee". Brazilian Santos is usually of the Bourbon variety.
Sarchimor Interspecific hybrid കോസ്റ്റാറിക്ക, ഭാരതം A hybrid between the Costa Rican Villa Sarchi and the Timor variety. Because of its Timor parent, Sarchimor is quite resistant to leaf rust disease and stem borer. As well as Costa Rica, it is grown in India.
SL28 അറബിക്ക കെനിയ A selection, by Scott Labs in Kenya from the Tanganyika Drought Resistant variety from northern Tanzania in 1931. Excellent flavour, commonly blackcurrant acidity.[8]
SL34 അറബിക്ക കെനിയ Selected by Scott Labs from the French Mission variety grown in Kenya. Selected for its superior cup quality (although inferior to SL28), but not resistant to CBD, CLR or BBC.
Sulawesi Toraja Kalossi അറബിക്ക ഇൻഡോനേഷ്യ Actually the S795 varietal, grown at high altitudes on the island of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), Indonesia. Kalossi is the small town in central Sulawesi which serves as the collection point for the coffee and Toraja is the mountainous area in which the coffee is grown. Sulawesi exhibits a rich, full body, well-balanced acidity and is multi-dimensional in character. Sulawesi itself is not a cultivar of coffee.
Sumatra Mandheling and Sumatra Lintong അറബിക്ക ഇൻഡോനേഷ്യ Mandheling is named after the Mandailing people located in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The name is the result of a misunderstanding by the first foreign purchaser of the variety, and no coffee is actually produced in the "Mandailing region". Lintong on the other hand, is named after the Lintong district, also located in North Sumatra. This is not a specific cultivar, but rather a region with a specific processing style.
Timor, Arabusta Interspecific hybrid ഇൻഡോനേഷ്യ Timor is not actually a variety of coffea arabica, but a hybrid of two species of coffee; coffea arabica and coffea canephora (also called Robusta). It was found on the island of Timor around the 1940s and it was cultivated because of its resistance to leaf rust (which most arabica coffee is susceptible to). It is called Hybrido de Timor in the Americas and Tim Tim or Bor Bor in Indonesia. Another hybrid between the two species is called Arabusta but generally only found in Africa.
Typica അറബിക്ക Worldwide Typica originated from Yemeni stock, taken first to Malabar, India, and later to Indonesia by the Dutch. It later made its way to the West Indies to the French colony at Martinique. Typica has genetically evolved to produce new characteristics, often considered new varietals: Criollo (South America), Arabigo (Americas), Kona (Hawaii), Pluma Hidalgo (Mexico), Garundang (Sumatra), Blue Mountain (Jamaica, Papua New Guinea), San Bernado & San Ramon (Brazil), Kents & Chickumalgu (India) [13]
Uganda അറബിക്ക/Robusta Although it mostly produces Robusta coffee, there is a quality Arabica bean grown there known as Bugishu around the Sipi Falls area.
Brutte അറബിക്ക Variety of coffee (arabica) Bred in 2014 in the south of India in g.Madras, 1996 Chennai Tamil Nadu. Grown at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level, which in itself is a good indicator. Differ by more quantitative tannin to 14 -15% and trigonelline 1.5 - 1.7%.[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്]
  1. "Genetic diversity in Tanzanian Arabica coffee using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers". wiley.com. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 6 March 2015.
  2. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; auto എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Arabica Coffee Bean Varietals". coffeeresearch.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 6 March 2015.
  4. http://www.donevelio.com/blogs/news/43885124-specialty-coffee-varietals-caturra-an-exotic-name-from-an-exotic-place-in-brazil
  5. "Coffeeglossary.net". coffeeglossary.net. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 6 March 2015.
  6. Top 10 - 2009 | International Institute for Species Exploration
  7. "Starbucks in Ethiopia coffee vow". BBC. June 21, 2007. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 2007-06-21. Starbucks has agreed a wide-ranging accord with Ethiopia to support and promote its coffee, ending a long-running dispute over the issue.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Account Suspended". crf.co.ke. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 6 March 2015.
  9. "2013 Best of Panama Coffee Auction".
  10. "Die genussvolle Welt des Kaffee's". Die genussvolle Welt des Kaffee's. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 6 March 2015.
  11. Ruiru 11 was released in 1985 by the Kenyan Coffee Research Station. While the variety is generally disease resistant, it produces a lower cup quality than K7, SL28 and 34.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Neilson, Jeff; Pritchard, Bill (2009). Value chain struggles: institutions and governance in the plantation districts of South India. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 124. ISBN 1-4051-7393-9.
  13. Wintgens, Jean Nicolas (2012). Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production (Second ed.). Wiley-VCH VerlangGmbH & Co. KGaA. p. 78. ISBN 978-3-527-33253-3.