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ഫലകം:Harvard citation

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
(ഫലകം:Harv എന്ന താളിൽ നിന്നും തിരിച്ചുവിട്ടതു പ്രകാരം)
[തിരുത്തുക] [പുതുക്കുക] ഫലകത്തിന്റെ വിവരണം


{{Harvard citation |''Last name of author(s)''|''Year''| ''Location in the text''}}

Instead of using Location, you may also use one of the following parameters:

  • p = page
  • pp = pages
  • The abbreviation Harv may be used.
  • The first parameter is the author's last name.
  • Up to four authors can be given as parameters (see the examples). If there are more than 4 authors only the first 4 should be listed; listing more will cause odd things to happen.
  • The second parameter is the year of publication (assuming one author).
  • The year and author name(s) must not have extra space before and after, else the generated links will not work. (BUG)
  • The third parameter is the location of the cited material within the reference. This parameter is optional.
  • The parameter p is an optional page parameter; thus "{{Harv|Smith|2006| p=25}}" yields "(Smith 2006, പുറം. 25)".
  • The parameter pp is an optional page range parameter; thus "{{Harv|Smith|2006| pp=25–26}}" yields "(Smith 2006, പുറങ്ങൾ. 25–26)".
  • If Ref=none, then no hyperlink is created.
  • To avoid the brackets surrounding the citation, use {{Harvard citation no brackets}} or {{Harvnb}}.
  • To use the author name(s) in the text, use {{Harvard citation text}} or {{Harvtxt}}.
  • For more complicated Harvard citations with multiple links use {{Harvard citations}} or its abbreviation {{harvs}}.

Editors editing this template are requested to make parallel changes to the other versions.


Markup Result
{{Harv |Smith|2006| loc=§8.5}} (Smith 2006, §8.5)
{{Harv |Smith|2006| p=25}} (Smith 2006, പുറം. 25)
{{Harv |Smith|2006| pp=25–26}} (Smith 2006, പുറങ്ങൾ. 25–26)
{{Harv |Smith|2006| pp=25–26 | Ref=none}} (Smith 2006, പുറങ്ങൾ. 25–26)
{{Harv |Smith|Jones|2006| p=25}} (Smith & Jones 2006, പുറം. 25)
{{Harv |Smith|Jones|Brown|2006| p=25}} (Smith, Jones & Brown 2006, പുറം. 25)
{{Harv |Smith|Jones|Brown|Black|2006| p=25}} (Smith et al. 2006, പുറം. 25)
{{Harvnb |Smith|2006| p=25}} Smith 2006, പുറം. 25
{{Harvtxt |Smith|2006| p=25}} Smith (2006, പുറം. 25)

Recommended style[തിരുത്തുക]

The recommended Harvard referencing style potentially uses all three templates. Each automatically generates a hypertext link based on the name(s) and date. Here is an example

Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves {{Harv|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973}}; yet {{Harvtxt|Einstein|1915}} presented essential equations with notable brevity. The essential ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor ({{Harvnb|Einstein|1915|loc=p. 844}}; {{Harvnb|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973|loc=p. 41}}).
Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves (Misner, Thorne & Wheeler 1973); yet Einstein (1915) presented essential equations with notable brevity. The two ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor (Einstein 1915, p. 844; Misner, Thorne & Wheeler 1973, p. 41).

In short:

  1. For a single work with no author in the text (the most common case), use {{Harv}}.
  2. For a single work with the author named in the text, use {{Harvtxt}}.
  3. For multiple works at the same point, use explicit parentheses and {{Harvnb}} separated by semicolons.


More exotic Harvard citations can be constructed using #CITEREF as in the following example:

[[Property (T)]] was introduced by [[David Kazhdan]] ([[Property T#CITEREFKazhdan1967|1967]]).

which produces

Property (T) was introduced by David Kazhdan (1967)

with a link to the author, and a link to a citation on a different page. #CITEREF should be followed by the last names of up to 4 authors and the year (with no spaces), and if the link is to a different page it should be preceded by the name of the page (with spaces allowed). The citation template marks the reference using #CITEREF; see the source of template:citation/core for details.

Use with {{Citation}}[തിരുത്തുക]

The {{Citation}} template can be used to format the citations in the References section. Links from the Harvard citation to the Citation are provided using a #CITEREF link. The {{Harvard citation}} template creates a link #CITEREF followed by the concatenation of the author names and the year. {{Citation}} creates an anchor <a name="CITEREF"></a> followed by the concatenation of the following parameters:

  • last or last1 or surname or surname1 or author or author1 or authors,
  • last2 or surname2 or author2,
  • last3 or surname3 or author3,
  • last4 or surname4 or author4,
  • editor-last or editor-surname or editor1-last or editor1-surname or editor or editors,
  • editor2-last or editor2-surname,
  • editor3-last or editor3-surname,
  • editor4-last or editor4-surname,
  • year or date.

For example {{Harv|Smith|2006| p=25}} produces a link #CITEREFSmith2006 and {{Citation|last=Smith|first=John|year=2006|title=My Life}} produces an anchor CITEREFSmith2006.


  • Smith, John (2006), My Life
  • Smith, John; Jones, Jack (2006), Our life together
  • Smith; Jones; Brown (2006), Three's a crowd
  • Smith; Jones; Brown; Black (2006), All together now
  • Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John Archibald (1973), Gravitation, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  • Einstein, Albert (1915), "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)", Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844–847

This high-risk template has been protected from editing to prevent vandalism. (protection log). Please discuss changes on the talk page or request unprotection. You may use {{editprotected}} on the talk page to ask for an administrator to make an edit for you.

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