|ജനനം||Józef Teodor Konrad Nałe̜cz Korzeniowski
1857 ഡിസംബർ 3
Berdychiv, Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire
|മരണം||1924 ഓഗസ്റ്റ് 3 (പ്രായം 66)
|Resting place||Canterbury Cemetery, Canterbury|
|രചനാ സങ്കേതം||Psychological realism, ആധുനികത|
Heart of Darkness
The Secret Agent
1857ൽ പോളണ്ടിൽ ജനിച്ചു. വളരെ ചെറുപ്പത്തിൽത്തന്നെ അനാഥനായ കോൺറാഡ് ഏകാകിയും അന്തർമുഖനുമായിരുന്നു. പതിനേഴാം വയസിൽ കപ്പലുകളിൽ ജോലി നോക്കാനാരംഭിച്ചു. സാഹസികമായ ഒരു ദീർഘകാല സമുദ്രജീവിതത്തിൽ നിന്ന് അഗാധമായ അനുഭവങ്ങൾ ലഭിച്ചു. മനുഷ്യന്റെ ആന്തരജീവിതത്തിലെ അനുഭവങ്ങളെ തീക്ഷ്ണമായി ആവിഷ്കരിക്കുന്ന സാഹിത്യകൃതികൾ രചിച്ചു. ഇംഗ്ലീഷുകാരനല്ലാത്ത കോൺറാഡ് ഇംഗ്ലീഷുകാരെപ്പോലും അതിശയിപ്പിക്കുന്ന വിധത്തിൽ ആംഗലസാഹിത്യത്തിൽ ചിരപ്രതിഷ്ഠ നേടി. 1924ൽ അന്തരിച്ചു.
- Almayer's Folly (1895)
- An Outcast of the Islands (1896)
- The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897)
- Heart of Darkness (1899)
- Lord Jim (1900)
- The Inheritors (with Ford Madox Ford) (1901)
- Typhoon (1902, begun 1899)
- The End of the Tether (written in 1902; collected in Youth, a Narrative and Two Other Stories, 1902)
- Romance (with Ford Madox Ford, 1903)
- Nostromo (1904)
- The Secret Agent (1907)
- Under Western Eyes (1911)
- Chance (1913)
- Victory (1915)
- The Shadow Line (1917)
- The Arrow of Gold (1919)
- The Rescue (1920)
- The Nature of a Crime (1923, with Ford Madox Ford)
- The Rover (1923)
- Suspense: A Napoleonic Novel (1925; unfinished, published posthumously)
- "The Black Mate": written, according to Conrad, in 1886; may be counted as his opus double zero; published 1908; posthumously collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925.
- "The Idiots": Conrad's truly first short story, which may be counted as his opus zero; written during his honeymoon (3.1896), published in The Savoy periodical, 1896, and collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898.
- "The Lagoon": composed 1896; published in Cornhill Magazine, 1897; collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898: "It is the first short story I ever wrote."
- "An Outpost of Progress": written 1896; published in Cosmopolis, 1897, and collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898: "My next [second] effort in short-story writing"; it shows numerous thematic affinities with Heart of Darkness; in 1906, Conrad described it as his "best story".
- "The Return": completed early 1897, while writing "Karain"; never published in magazine form; collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898: "[A]ny kind word about 'The Return' (and there have been such words said at different times) awakens in me the liveliest gratitude, for I know how much the writing of that fantasy has cost me in sheer toil, in temper, and in disillusion." Conrad, who suffered while writing this psychological chef-d'oeuvre of introspection, once remarked: "I hate it."
- "Karain: A Memory": written February–April 1897; published November 1897 in Blackwood's Magazine and collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898: "my third short story in... order of time".
- "Youth": written 1898; collected in Youth, a Narrative, and Two Other Stories, 1902
- "Falk": novella / story, written early 1901; collected only in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903
- "Amy Foster": composed 1901; published in the Illustrated London News, December 1901, and collected in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903.
- "To-morrow": written early 1902; serialized in Pall Mall Magazine, 1902, and collected in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903
- "Gaspar Ruiz": written after Nostromo in 1904–5; published in The Strand Magazine, 1906, and collected in A Set of Six, 1908 (UK), 1915 (US). This story was the only piece of Conrad's fiction ever adapted by the author for cinema, as Gaspar the Strong Man, 1920.
- "An Anarchist": written late 1905; serialized in Harper's Magazine, 1906; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 (UK), 1915 (US)
- "The Informer": written before January 1906; published, December 1906, in Harper's Magazine, and collected in A Set of Six, 1908 (UK), 1915 (US)
- "The Brute": written early 1906; published in The Daily Chronicle, December 1906; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 (UK), 1915 (US)
- "The Duel: A Military Story": serialized in the UK in Pall Mall Magazine, early 1908, and later that year in the US as "The Point of Honor", in the periodical Forum; collected in A Set of Six in 1908 and published by Garden City Publishing in 1924. Joseph Fouché makes a cameo appearance.
- "Il Conde" (i.e., "Conte" [count]): appeared in Cassell's Magazine (UK), 1908, and Hampton's (US), 1909; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 (UK), 1915 (US)
- "The Secret Sharer": written December 1909; published in Harper's Magazine, 1910, and collected in ’Twixt Land and Sea, 1912
- "Prince Roman": written 1910, published 1911 in the Oxford and Cambridge Review; posthumously collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925; based on the story of Prince Roman Sanguszko of Poland (1800–81)
- "A Smile of Fortune": a long story, almost a novella, written in mid-1910; published in London Magazine, February 1911; collected in ’Twixt Land and Sea, 1912
- "Freya of the Seven Isles": a near-novella, written late 1910–early 1911; published in Metropolitan Magazine and London Magazine, early 1912 and July 1912, respectively; collected in ’Twixt Land and Sea 1912)
- "The Partner": written 1911; published in Within the Tides, 1915
- "The Inn of the Two Witches": written 1913; published in Within the Tides, 1915
- "Because of the Dollars": written 1914; published in Within the Tides, 1915
- "The Planter of Malata": written 1914; published in Within the Tides, 1915
- "The Warrior's Soul": written late 1915–early 1916; published in Land and Water, March 1917; collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925
- "The Tale": Conrad's only story about World War I; written 1916, first published 1917 in The Strand Magazine; posthumously collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925
- The Mirror of the Sea (collection of autobiographical essays first published in various magazines 1904–6), 1906
- A Personal Record (also published as Some Reminiscences), 1912
- The First News, 1918
- The Lesson of the Collision: A monograph upon the loss of the "Empress of Ireland", 1919
- The Polish Question, 1919
- The Shock of War, 1919
- Notes on Life and Letters, 1921
- Notes on My Books, 1921
- Last Essays, edited by Richard Curle, 1926
- The Congo Diary and Other Uncollected Pieces, edited by Zdzisław Najder, 1978, ISBN 978-0-385-00771-9
കോൺറാഡിന്റെ സാഹിത്യലോകത്തിന്റെ സ്വാധീനത്താലുണ്ടായ രചനകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]
- Victory (1919), directed by Maurice Tourneur
- Lord Jim (1925), directed by Victor Fleming
- Niebezpieczny raj (Dangerous Paradise, 1930), a Polish adaptation of Victory
- Dangerous Paradise (1930), an adaptation of Victory directed by William Wellman
- Sabotage (1936), adapted from Conrad's The Secret Agent, directed by Alfred Hitchcock
- Victory (1940), featuring Frederic March
- An Outcast of the Islands (1952), featuring Trevor Howard
- Lord Jim (1965), starring Peter O'Toole
- L'avventuriero (The Rover, 1967), directed by Terence Young, featuring Anthony Quinn
- Smuga cienia (The Shadow Line, 1976), a Polish-British adaptation of The Shadow Line, directed by Andrzej Wajda
- The Duellists, a 1977 adaptation of The Duel by Ridley Scott
- Apocalypse Now (1979), by Francis Ford Coppola, adapted from Heart of Darkness
- Victory (1995), adapted by director Mark Peploe from the novel
- The Secret Agent (1996), starring Bob Hoskins, Patricia Arquette and Gérard Depardieu
- Nostromo (1997), a BBC TV adaptation, co-produced with Italian and Spanish TV networks and WGBH Boston
- Gabrielle (2005) directed by Patrice Chéreau. Adaptation of the short story "The Return" (1898), starring Isabelle Hupert and Pascal Greggory.
- Hanyut (2011), a Malaysian adaptation of Almayer's Folly
- Almayer's Folly (2011), directed by Chantal Akerman
- Heart of Darkness (opera) (2011), a chamber opera in one act by Tarik O'Regan, with an English-language libretto by artist Tom Phillips.
najderഎന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.
ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ
- Gérard Jean-Aubry, Vie de Conrad (Life of Conrad — the authorized biography), Gallimard, 1947, translated by Helen Sebba as The Sea Dreamer: A Definitive Biography of Joseph Conrad, New York, Doubleday & Co., 1957.Magill, Frank (1968). Masterplots 11. Salem Press. p. 236.
- Peter Edgerly Firchow, Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness, University Press of Kentucky, 2000.
- Jeffrey Meyers, Joseph Conrad: a Biography, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.
- Zdzisław Najder, Conrad under Familial Eyes, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-25082-X.
- Zdzisław Najder, Joseph Conrad: a Life, translated by Halina Najder, Rochester, Camden House, 2007, ISBN 1-57113-347-X.
- Joseph Retinger, Conrad and His Contemporaries, London, Minerva, 1941; New York, Roy, 1942.
- T. Scovel, A Time to Speak: a Psycholinguistic Inquiry into the Critical Period for Human Speech, Cambridge, MA, Newbury House, 1988.
- J.H. Stape, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
- John Stape, The Several Lives of Joseph Conrad, Pantheon, 2008, ISBN 1-4000-4449-9.
- J.I.M. Stewart, Joseph Conrad, New York, Dodd, Mead & Company, 1968.
- Ian Watt (2000) Essays on Conrad. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521783879, ISBN 978-0521783873
- Olivier Weber, Conrad, Arthaud-Flammarion, 2011.
- Wise, T.J. (1920) A Bibliography of the Writings of Joseph Conrad (1895–1920). London: Printed for Private Circulation Only By Richard Clay & Sons, Ltd.
- Morton Dauwen Zabel, "Conrad, Joseph," Encyclopedia Americana, 1986 ed., ISBN 0-7172-0117-1, vol. 7, pp. 606–7.
- Works by or about Joseph Conrad at Internet Archive and Google Books (scanned books original editions color illustrated)
- Joseph Conrad എന്ന വ്യക്തിയുടെ രചനകൾ പ്രോജക്ട് ഗുട്ടൻബർഗിൽനിന്ന് (plain text and HTML)
- Works by Joseph Conrad at The Online Books Page (various)
- Works by or about ജോസഫ് കോൺറാഡ് in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Works by Joseph Conrad at LibriVox (audio books)
- Works by Joseph Conrad at Conrad First, an archive of every newspaper and magazine in which the work of Joseph Conrad was first published.
Portals and biographies
- The Joseph Conrad Society (UK)
- Joseph Conrad Society of America
- Biography of Joseph Conrad, at The Joseph Conrad Centre of Poland
- Biography of Joseph Conrad, at The Literature Network