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നിസാമി ഗഞ്ചാവി

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
(Nizami Ganjavi എന്ന താളിൽ നിന്നും തിരിച്ചുവിട്ടതു പ്രകാരം)
നിസാമി ഗഞ്ചാവി
Rug depiction of Nizami Ganjavi (1939). Ganja Museum, Republic of Azerbaijan.
Rug depiction of Nizami Ganjavi (1939). Ganja Museum, Republic of Azerbaijan.
ജനനംc. (earlier date c. has also been suggested)
ഗഞ്ച, സെൽജുക് സാമ്രാജ്യം (modern-day Republic of അസർബൈജാൻ)
മരണം1209 (aged 68–78)
ഗഞ്ച (ഷിർവാൻഷാ രാജവംശം, ആധുനിക റിപ്പബ്ലിക് ഓഫ് അസർബൈജാൻ)
Period12th century
GenreRomantic Persian epic poetry,[1] Persian lyrical poetry, wisdom literature
ശ്രദ്ധേയമായ രചന(കൾ)Khamsa or Panj Ganj ('Five Treasures')

പന്ത്രണ്ടാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിലെ ഒരു പേർഷ്യൻ[2][3][4][5][6] സുന്നി[7]മുസ്ലീം കവിയായിരുന്നു നിസാമി ഗഞ്ചാവി (പേർഷ്യൻ: نظامی گنجوی, റോമനൈസ്ഡ്: Niẓāmī Ganjavī, lit. 'Niẓāmī of Ganja') (c. 1141–1209),,[2] നിസാമി ഗഞ്ചേയ്,[2] നിസാമി,[8]അല്ലെങ്കിൽ നെസാമി, എന്നും അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു. ജമാൽ അദ്-ദിൻ അബു മുഹമ്മദ് ഇല്യാസ് ഇബ്നു-യൂസുഫ് ഇബ്ൻ-സാക്കി എന്നാണ് അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ ഔപചാരിക നാമം.

പേർഷ്യൻ സാഹിത്യത്തിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ റൊമാന്റിക് ഇതിഹാസ കവിയായി നെസാമി കണക്കാക്കപ്പെടുന്നു.[9] പേർഷ്യൻ ഇതിഹാസത്തിന് സംഭാഷണ ശൈലിയും റിയലിസ്റ്റിക് ശൈലിയും അദ്ദേഹം കൊണ്ടുവന്നു.[1][8] അഫ്ഗാനിസ്ഥാൻ,[2] റിപ്പബ്ലിക് ഓഫ് അസർബൈജാൻ,[10] ഇറാൻ,[2] കുർദിസ്ഥാൻ മേഖല[11][12][13], താജിക്കിസ്ഥാൻ[2]എന്നിവ അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പൈതൃകത്തെ വ്യാപകമായി വിലമതിക്കുകയും പങ്കിടുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു.

ജീവിതം[തിരുത്തുക]

ഷായുടെ സ്വീകരണത്തിൽ നിസാമി ഗഞ്ചാവി. മിനിയേച്ചർ. 1570. അസർബൈജാൻ ചരിത്ര മ്യൂസിയം

അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ വ്യക്തിപരമായ പേര് ഇല്യാസ്[2] എന്നായിരുന്നു. അദ്ദേഹം തിരഞ്ഞെടുത്ത തൂലികാനാമം നെസാമി (നിസാമി, നെയാമി എന്നും ഉച്ചരിക്കപ്പെടുന്നു). ഗഞ്ചയിലെ (സെൽജുക്[1] സാമ്രാജ്യം, ഇപ്പോൾ റിപ്പബ്ലിക് ഓഫ് അസർബൈജാൻ) ഒരു നഗര[10] പശ്ചാത്തലത്തിൽ ജനിച്ച അദ്ദേഹം തന്റെ ജീവിതകാലം മുഴുവൻ സൗത്ത് കോക്കസസിൽ ചെലവഴിച്ചതായി വിശ്വസിക്കപ്പെടുന്നു. ഡി ബ്ലോയിസിന്റെ അഭിപ്രായത്തിൽ, അക്കാലത്ത് ഇറാനിയൻ ജനസംഖ്യ കൂടുതലുള്ള ഒരു നഗരമായിരുന്നു ഗഞ്ച.[2] അർമേനിയൻ ചരിത്രകാരനായ കിരാക്കോസ് ഗാൻഡ്സാകേത്സി (c. 1200 – 1271) ഇപ്രകാരം പരാമർശിക്കുന്നു: "ഈ നഗരം ഇറാനികളും ഒരു ചെറിയ എണ്ണം ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളും തിങ്ങിപ്പാർക്കുന്നതായിരുന്നു".[14] നെസാമി ഒരു കൊട്ടാര കവി അല്ലാത്തതിനാൽ, രാജവംശങ്ങളുടെ വാർഷികങ്ങളിൽ അദ്ദേഹം പ്രത്യക്ഷപ്പെടുന്നില്ല.[15] ജീവചരിത്ര വിവരങ്ങളും ശൈലികളുടെ വ്യാഖ്യാനവും സഹിതം മഹാകവികളുടെ ആപ്തവാക്യം ഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന സാഹിത്യ സ്മരണകളുടെ സമാഹാരങ്ങളായ തസ്‌കറെഹ്‌കൾ അദ്ദേഹത്തെ ഹ്രസ്വമായി പരാമർശിക്കുന്നു.[15] ഈ തസ്‌കെറെയിലെ ഈ മെറ്റീരിയലിന്റെ ഭൂരിഭാഗവും ഐതിഹ്യങ്ങൾ, ഉപകഥകൾ, കേട്ടറിവുകൾ എന്നിവയെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയുള്ളതാണ്.[15] തൽഫലമായി, നെസാമിയുടെ ജീവിതത്തെക്കുറിച്ച് കുറച്ച് വസ്തുതകൾ മാത്രമേ അറിയൂ[10][15]. അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ വ്യക്തിജീവിതത്തെക്കുറിച്ച് കൂടുതൽ വിവരങ്ങൾ നൽകാത്ത അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ സ്വന്തം സൃഷ്ടിയാണ് ഏക ഉറവിടം.[10]

മാതാപിതാക്കൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

നെസാമി ബാല്യകാലത്തുതന്നെ അനാഥനായി[8][16] അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ മാതൃസഹോദരൻ ഖ്വാജ ഉമറാണ് അദ്ദേഹത്തെ വളർത്തിയത്. അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ ഉത്തരവാദിത്തം ഏറ്റെടുക്കുകയും അദ്ദേഹത്തിന് മികച്ച വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം നൽകുകയും ചെയ്തു. റയിസ എന്നു പേരുള്ള അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ അമ്മ കുർദിഷ്[8][10][17] വംശജയായിരുന്നു. നെസാമി തന്റെ കവിതയിൽ ഒരിക്കൽ യൂസഫ് എന്നായിരുന്നു അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പിതാവിനെ പരാമർശിച്ചത്.[8] അതേ വാക്യത്തിൽ, നെസാമി തന്റെ മുത്തച്ഛന്റെ പേര് സക്കി എന്ന് പരാമർശിക്കുന്നു. ഇതേ വാക്യത്തിന്റെ ഭാഗമായി,[18] ചിലർ മുഅയ്യദ് എന്ന പദം സക്കിയുടെ തലക്കെട്ടായി എടുത്തിട്ടുണ്ട്.[19] മറ്റുള്ളവർ അതിനെ അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ മുത്തച്ഛന്റെ പേരായി വ്യാഖ്യാനിക്കുന്നു. ചില സ്രോതസ്സുകൾ പ്രസ്താവിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നത് അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പിതാവ് ഒരുപക്ഷേ കോമിൽ നിന്നായിരിക്കാം എന്നാണ്.[8][17] നെസാമി ഒരു പേർഷ്യൻ കൂടാതെ/അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ഇറാനിയൻ ആയി പലവിധത്തിൽ പരാമർശിക്കപ്പെടുന്നു.[3][20][21]

Notes[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Neẓāmī". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Archived from the original on ഡിസംബർ 4, 2008. Retrieved ഫെബ്രുവരി 28, 2009. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. .... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 C. A. (Charles Ambrose) Storey and François de Blois (2004), "Persian Literature – A Biobibliographical Survey: Volume V Poetry of the Pre-Mongol Period.", RoutledgeCurzon; 2nd revised edition (June 21, 2004). ISBN 0-947593-47-0. p. 363: "Nizami Ganja’i, whose personal name was Ilyas, is the most celebrated native poet of the Persians after Firdausi. His nisbah designates him as a native of Ganja (Elizavetpol, Kirovabad) in Azerbaijan, then still a country with an Iranian population, and he spent the whole of his life in Transcaucasia; the verse in some of his poetic works which makes him a native of the hinterland of Qom is a spurious interpolation." begun by C. A. Storey (Author), Francois De Blois (Author). Persian Literature - A Biobibliographical Survey: Poetry c. A.D. 1100-1225 (Volume V Part 2). Royal Asiatic Society Books. p. 438. ISBN 094759311X. {{cite book}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Chelkowski, P.J (1995), “Nizami Gandjawi”, Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Ed., vol. 8: 76–81. Online Version: Chelkowski, P. "Nizami Gandjawi, jamal al-Din Abu Muhammad Ilyas b. Yusuf b. Zaki Muayyad . Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. Excerpt one:"Nizami Gandjawi, Djamal al-Din Abu Muhammad Ilyas b. Yusuf b. Zaki Muʾayyad, one of the greatest Persian poets and thinkers." Excerpt two: "In Haft Paykar, the phantasmagoric movement of its hero, Bahram Gūr, as he visits each princess, covers a symbolic path between black, or the hidden majesty of the Divine, and white, or purity and unity. The princesses and their pavilions are manifestations of specific planets, specific climes, colours, and days. The pavilions are domed, representing the structure of the heavens. Nizami illustrates the harmony of the universe, the affinity of the sacred and the profane, and the concordance of ancient and Islamic Iran." (Nizami Ganjavi in Encyclopedia of Islam, Chelkowski)."
  4. Bernard Lewis, “Music of a distant drum”, Princeton University Press, 2001. Pg 9: “The Persians went a step further, creating authentic epic tradition comparables with those of Greece, Rome and the Vikings. This too, became in time, a form of Persian national self definition. The most famous of Persian epic poets, Firdawsi (940–1020) has been translated several times. An extract from the story of Farhad and Shirin, as told by the 12th century Persian poet Nizami, exmpelified another form of narrative”
  5. Julie Scott Meisami, Paul Starkeym, “Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature”, Taylor & Francis, 1998. Pg 69: “In Arabic literature there has been no artistic elaboration of the story comparable to that undertaken by the Persian poet Nizami“
  6. "BACHER, WILHELM – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Archived from the original on 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
  7. E.E. Bertels (1962), Selected Works, Nizami and Fizuli, "the fact that unlike the Shia Iranians, "Nizami was righteous Sunni"", Oriental Literature
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Meisami, Julie Scott (1995). The Haft Paykar: A Medieval Persian Romance. Oxford University Press. Abû Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yusuf ibn Zaki Mu'ayyad, known by his pen-name of Nizami, was born around 1141 in Ganja, the capital of Arran in Transcaucasian Azerbaijan, where he remained until his death in about 1209. His father, who had migrated to Ganja from Qom in north central Iran, may have been a civil servant; his mother was a daughter of a Kurdish chieftain; having lost both parents early in his life, Nizami was brought up by an uncle. He was married three times, and in his poems laments the death of each of his wives, as well as proferring advice to his son Muhammad. He lived in an age of both political instability and intense intellectual activity, which his poems reflect; but little is known about his life, his relations with his patrons, or the precise dates of his works, as the accounts of later biographers are colored by the many legends built up around the poet
  9. CHARLES-HENRI DE FOUCHÉCOUR, "IRAN:Classical Persian Literature" in Encyclopædia Iranica
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Jan Rypka (Rypka, Jan. ‘Poets and Prose Writers of the Late Saljuq and Mongol Periods’, in The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, ed., Published January 1968. p. 578: As the scene of the greatest flowering of the panegyrical qasida, southern Caucasia occupies a prominent place in New Persian literary history. But this region also gave to the world Persia’s finest creator of romantic epics. Hakim Jamal al-din Abu Muhammad Ilyas b. Yusuf b. Zaki b. Mu’ayyad Nizami a native of Ganja in Azarbaijan, is an unrivaled master of thoughts and words, a poet whose freshness and vigor all the succeeding centuries have been unable to dull. Little is known of his life, the only source being his own works, which in many cases provided no reliable information. We can only deduce that he was born between 535 and 540 (1140–46) and that his background was urban. Modern Azarbaijan is exceedingly proud of its world famous son and insists that he was not just a native of the region, but that he came from its own Turkic stock. At all events his mother was of Iranian origin, the poet himself calling her Ra’isa and describing her as Kurdish.
  11. Vladimir Minorsky. Studies in Caucasian History. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
  12. Thomas de Waal. The Caucasus: An Introduction. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
  13. "Nizami Ganjavi - USSR Politicization - Iranian Persian Civilization - Nezami Ganjei". Azargoshnasp.net. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
  14. Gandzakatsi, Kirakos. Kirakos Gandzakats'i's History of the Armenians / translation from Classical Armenian by Robert Bedrosian. — New York: 1986. — p. 197 Excerpt: "This city was densely populated with Iranians and a small number of Christians. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2016-08-17. Kirakos Gandzakets' Patmut'iwn Hayots' [Kirakos of Gandzak, History of Armenia], edited by K.A. Melik'-Ohanjanyan, (Erevan, 1961), p. 235: "Ays k'aghak's bazmambox lts'eal parsko'k', ayl sakaw ew k'ristone'iwk'..."
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Peter J. Chelkowski, "Mirror of the Invisible World", New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975. p. 1: "The culture of Nizami's Persia is renowned for its deep-rooted tradition and splendor. In pre-Islamic times, it had developed extraordinarily rich and exact means of expression in music, architecture, and daily life as well as in writing, although Iran, its center—or, as the poets believed, its heart—was continually overrun by invading armies and immigrants, this tradition was able to absorb, transform, and ultimately ocercome foreign intrusion. Alexander the Great was only one of many conquerors, to be seduced by the Persian way of life." p. 2:"During the last quarter of the twelfth century, when Nizami began his Khamsa, Seljuq supremacy was on the decline and political unrest and social ferments were increasing. However, Persian culture characteristically flourished when political power was diffused rather than centralized, and so Persian remained the primary language, Persian civil servants were in great demand, Persian merchants were successful, and princedoms continued to vie for the service of Persian poets. This was especially true in Ganjeh, the Caucasian outpost town where Nizami lived." p. 6: "Nizami's strong character, his social sensibility, and his poetic genius fused with his rich Persian cultural heritage to create a new standard of literary achievement. Using themes from the oral tradition and written historical records, his poems unite pre-Islamic and Islamic Iran", p. 9:"Probably no Persian writer has inspired succeeding generation of poets more than Nizami", p. 6: ""Khosrow and Shirin" proved to be a literary turning point not only for Nizami but for all of Persian poetry. Furthermore it was the first poem in Persian literature to achieve complete structural and artistic unity". p. 2;"During the last quarter of the twelfth century, when Nizami began his Khamsa, Seljuq supremacy was on the decline and political unrest and social ferments were increasing. However, Persian culture characteristically flourished when political power was diffused rather than centralized, and so Persian remained the primary language, Persian civil servants were in great demand, Persian merchants were successful, and princedoms continued to vie for the service of Persian poets. This was especially true in Ganjeh, the Caucasian outpost town where Nizami lived." p. 1: "By the end of the tenth century, Persian literature was world renowned; it was heralded from the eastern Mediterranean to the banks of the Indus" pp2:"Few facts about the life of Nizami are certain. Because he was not a court poet and it was his poetry rather than his life or his political connections that won him enduring fame, he does not appear in the annals of the dynasties...". p. 9: "The memorization and recitation of their literary heritage has alway beens vital to Iranians, whose attitude towards the power of the written and spoken word is revential. Even today the national passion for poetry is constantly expressed over radio and television, in teahouses, in literary societies, in daily conversation, and in the Musha'areh, the poetry recitation contest. Nizami's work serves as a vehicle and a symbol of this tradition, for it unites universality with deep-rooted artistic endeavor, a sense of justice and passion for the arts and sciences with spirituallity and genuine piety. for richness and fineness of metaphor, accuracy, and profundity of psychological observation, and sheer virtuosity of storytelling, Nizami is unequalled"
  16. "The Poetry of Nizami Ganjavi: Knowledge, Love, and Rhetortics", New York, 2001. p. 2: "His father, Yusuf and mother, Rai'sa, died while he was still relatively young, but maternal uncle, Umar, assumed responsibility for him"
  17. 17.0 17.1 A) V.Minorsky: "review of G. H. Darab translation of Makhzan al-Asrar" 1945 Minorsky, BSOAS., 1948, xii/2, 441–5):"Whether Nizami was born in Qom or in Ganja is not quite clear. The verse (quoted on p. 14): "I am lost as a pearl in the sea of Ganja, yet I am from the Qohestan of the city of Qom ", does not expressly mean that he was born in Qom. On the other hand, Nizami's mother was of Kurdish origin, and this might point to Ganja where the Kurdish dynasty of Shaddad ruled down to AH. 468; even now Kurds are found to the south of Ganja." B)V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian History, Cambridge University Press, 1957. p. 34:"The author of the collection of documents relating to Arran Mas’ud b. Namdar (c. 1100) claims Kurdish nationality. The mother of the poet Nizami of Ganja was Kurdish (see autobiographical digression in the introduction of Layli wa Majnun). In the 16th century there was a group of 24 septs of Kurds in Qarabagh, see Sharaf-nama, I, 323. Even now the Kurds of the USSR are chiefly grouped south of Ganja. Many place-names composed with Kurd are found on both banks of the Kur"
  18. Barazat Zanjani. “Layla va Majnun-I Nizami Ganjavi: matn-I Ilmi va intiqadi az ru-yi qadimtari nuskha-hayi khatti-I qarn-I hashtum ba zikr-i ikhtilaf-i nusakh va ma’ani lughat va tarikbat va kashf al-bayat”, Tehran, Mu’assasah-i Chap va Intisharat-i Danishgah Tehran, 1369[1990]. p. 28:گر شد پدرم به سنت جد- یوسف پسر زکی مؤید (Gar shod Pedaram beh sonnat-i jadd – Yusuf Pesar-i Zakki Mu'ayyad)
  19. Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad
  20. A)C. A. (Charles Ambrose) Storey and Franço de Blois (2004), "Persian Literature – A Biobibliographical Survey: Volume V Poetry of the Pre-Mongol Period.", RoutledgeCurzon; 2nd revised edition (June 21, 2004). p. 363: "Nizami Ganja’i, whose personal name was Ilyas, is the most celebrated native poet of the Persians after Firdausi. His nisbah designates him as a native of Ganja (Elizavetpol, Kirovabad) in Azerbaijan, then still a country with an Iranian population, and he spent the whole of his life in Transcaucasia; the verse in some of his poetic works which makes him a native of the hinterland of Qom is a spurious interpolation." B) Ian Philip McGreal, "Great Literature of the Eastern World", Published 1996, p. 505):"His mother was an Iranian Kurd and it is possible that his father had the same ethnic origin, though he is claimed also by Turkish Azerbaijanis as being of their stock.". C) Abel, A. (1978), “Eskandar nāma”, Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Ed., vol. 4:127–129. Online: Abel, A.; Ed(s). "Iskandar Nama." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill online edition. Excerpt: "In the Shahnama, Firdawsi already makes Iskandar an exemplary figure, whom the companionship of Aristotle helps to rise still higher, by the path of wisdom and moderation, in the direction of abstinence and contempt for this world. And Firdwasi laid stress on the defeat of Dārā (the Darius of the Greeks) as something desired by "the rotation of the Heavens"....At the time of Niẓami, however, Islam is from then onwards well established in Iran, and it is the prophetic and ecumenical aspect of his destiny that the poet makes evident in his hero. As a learned Iranian poet, Niẓami, who demonstrates his eclecticism in the information he gives (he says, "I have taken from everything just what suited me and I have borrowed from recent histories, Christian, Pahlavi and Jewish ... and of them I have made a whole"), locates the story of his hero principally in Iran. D Siavash Lornejad, Ali Doostzadeh (2012). "On the Modern Politicization of the Persian Poet Nezami Ganjavi" (PDF). YEREVAN SERIES FOR ORIENTAL STUDIES (Editor of the Series Garnik Asatrian), Caucasian Centre for Iranian Studies. Yerevan: Victoria Arakelova. pp. 173–175.
  21. "Chapter 4". Archived from the original on 2015-07-03. Retrieved 2015-06-20.

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