The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Today, pronunciation of Ancient Greek is mostly based on Erasmian pronunciation. However, native Greek speakers use Modern Greek pronunciations for Ancient Greek words and phrases.
↑ 1.01.11.21.31.41.5‹γ›, ‹κ›, ‹χ›, ‹γγ›, ‹γκ›, ‹γχ› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲɟ ɲç] only before the front vowels[i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
↑ 3.03.1[ʎ] and [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of /li/ and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography. Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/. If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
↑‹σ› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] eg: Σμήνος[ˈzminos]
↑ 7.07.17.27.22.214.171.124.7γκ, μπ, ντ usually represent [ŋg~ɲɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [g~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. eg: αμπέλι[amˈbe̞li], μπαμπάς [baˈbas]
↑The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is called Iotacism.
↑Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (eg: γιαγιά[ʝaˈʝa], κιόλας[ˈcolas], χιόνι[ˈçoni], μαγκιά[maˈɟa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (eg: χέρια[ˈce̞rʝa], βαριέμαι[varˈʝe̞me̞]) and [ç] follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s t͡s] (eg: καρφιά[karfˈça], ποιος[pços], ρεβύθια[re̞ˈviθça]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (eg: μια[mɲa], καλαμιά[kalaˈmɲa]
↑When following a vowel, ‹υ› represents a pronunciation with [f] before ‹θ›, ‹κ›, ‹ξ›, ‹π›, ‹σ›, ‹τ›, ‹φ›, ‹χ›, ‹ψ›, and a pronunciation with [v] elsewhere.