ഫ്രീ സിറ്റി ഓഫ് ഡാൻസിഗ്

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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Free City of Danzig

Freie Stadt Danzig
Wolne Miasto Gdańsk
1920–1939
Flag of Danzig
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Motto: "Nec Temere, Nec Timide"
"Neither rashly nor timidly"
Danzig, surrounded by Germany and Poland
Danzig, surrounded by Germany and Poland
Location of the Free City of Danzig in 1930s Europe
Location of the Free City of Danzig in 1930s Europe
StatusFree City under League of Nations protection
CapitalDanzig
Common languages
Religion
GovernmentRepublic
High Commissioner 
• 1919–1920
Reginald Tower
• 1937–1939
Carl Jacob Burckhardt
Senate President 
• 1920–1931
Heinrich Sahm
• 1934–1939
Arthur Greiser
LegislatureVolkstag
Historical eraInterwar period
• Established
15 November 1920
1 September 1939
• Annexed by Germany
2 September 1939
Area
19231,966 km2 (759 sq mi)
Population
• 1923
366730
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
West Prussia
Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
Today part of Poland

1920-നും 1939-നും ഇടക്ക് നിലനിന്നിരുന്ന ഒരു അർധ-സ്വയം ഭരണ പ്രദേശമായിരുന്നു ഡാൻസിഗ് (Free City of Danzig) എന്ന സ്വതന്ത്ര നഗരം (ജർമ്മൻ: ഫ്രെഡി സ്റ്റഡ്ട് ഡാൻസിഗ്; പോളിഷ്: വോൾനെ മിയസ്റ്റോ ഗഡൻസ്ക്). ഡാൻസിഗ് ബാൾട്ടിക് സമുദ്ര തുറമുഖവും (ഇപ്പോൾ ഗഡാൻസ്ക്, പോളണ്ട്), ഏകദേശം 200 ചുറ്റുമുള്ള പ്രദേശങ്ങളിലെ പട്ടണങ്ങളും ഗ്രാമങ്ങളും ചേർന്നതാണ്. ഒന്നാം ലോകമഹായുദ്ധം അവസാനിച്ചതിനു ശേഷം 1919-ലെ വാഴ്സൈൽ ഉടമ്പടിയുടെ ആർട്ടിക്കിൾ 100 (പാർട്ട് III ൻറെ സെക്ഷൻ XI) അനുസരിച്ച്, 1920 നവംബർ 15-നാണ് ഇത് സൃഷ്ടിക്കപ്പെട്ടത്.[1][2] ഒന്നാം ലോക മഹായുദ്ധം അവസാനിച്ച ശേഷം 1919-ലെ വേഴ്സീസ് ഉടമ്പടിയുടെ ആർട്ടിക്കിൾ 100 (പാർട്ട് III ൻറെ സെക്ഷൻ XI) നിബന്ധനകൾ അനുസരിച്ചിരുന്നു.


Polish passport issued at Danzig by the "Polish Commission for Gdansk" in 1935 and extended again in 1937, before the holder immigrated to British Palestine the following year.
Name Period Country
1 Reginald Thomas Tower 1919–1920  യുണൈറ്റഡ് കിങ്ഡം
2 Edward Lisle Strutt 1920  യുണൈറ്റഡ് കിങ്ഡം
3 Bernardo Attolico 1920  Italy
4 Richard Cyril Byrne Haking 1921–1923  യുണൈറ്റഡ് കിങ്ഡം
5 Mervyn Sorley McDonnell 1923–1925  യുണൈറ്റഡ് കിങ്ഡം
6 Joost Adriaan van Hamel 1925–1929  Netherlands
7 Manfredi di Gravina 1929–1932  Italy
8 Helmer Rosting 1932–1934  ഡെന്മാർക്ക്
9 Seán Lester 1934–1936  Irish Free State
10 Carl Jacob Burckhardt 1937–1939  സ്വിറ്റ്സർലാന്റ്


Total population by language, November 1, 1923, according to the Free City of Danzig census[3]:11
Nationality German German and
Polish
Polish, Kashub,
Masurian
Russian,
Ukrainian
Hebrew,
Yiddish
Unclassified Total
Danzig 327,827 1,108 6,788 99 22 77 335,921
Non-Danzig 20,666 521 5,239 2,529 580 1,274 30,809
Total 348,493 1,629 12,027 2,628 602 1,351 366,730
Percent 95.03% 0.44% 3.28% 0.72% 0.16% 0.37% 100.00%

Notable people born in the Free City of Danzig[തിരുത്തുക]

Eddi Arent 1971
Ingrid van Bergen 2010
Günter Grass 2006
Klaus Kinski 1980s
Rupert Neudeck 2007
Wolfgang Voelz 2011
  • Eddi Arent (1925 in Danzig – 2013 in Munich) was a German actor,[4] cabaret artist and comedian. He appeared in 104 films between 1956 and 2002.
  • Ike Aronowicz (1923 in Danzig – 2009 Israel) [5] captain of the immigrant ship SS Exodus, which unsuccessfully tried to dock in British-era Palestine with Holocaust survivors on July 11, 1947
  • Elisabeth Becker (1923 in Danzig – executed 1946 in Biskupia Górka) was a concentration camp guard [6] in World War II.
  • Ingrid van Bergen (born 1931 in Danzig) is a German film actress.[7] She has appeared in 100 films since 1954. Convicted of manslaughter in 1977
  • Miltiades Caridis (1923 in Danzig – 1998 in Athens) was a German-Greek conductor, his family moved to Greece in 1938.
  • Zygmunt Chychła (1926 in Gdańsk - 2009 in Hamburg) was a Polish boxer.[8] He won the Olympic gold medal for Poland at the 1952 Summer Olympics
  • Anna M. Cienciala (1929 in Danzig – 2014 in Florida) was a Polish-American[9] historian and author
  • Holger Czukay (1938 in Danzig – 2017 in Weilerswist) was a German musician,[10] co-founder of the krautrock group Can
  • Horst Ehmke (1927 in Danzig – 2017 in Bonn) was a German lawyer, law professor and SPD politician,[11] served as Federal Minister of Justice (1969)
  • Jörg-Peter Ewert (born 1938 in Danzig) is a German neurophysiologist [12] and researcher into Neuroethology
  • Günter Grass (1927 in Danzig – 2015 in Lubeck) was a German novelist,[13] poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature.
  • Ursula Happe (born 1926 in Danzig) is a German swimmer and Olympic champion.[14] She competed at the 1956 Summer Olympics and won the gold medal in 200 m breaststroke
  • Klaus Kinski (1926 in Zopot – 1991 in Lagunitas, California) was a controversial German actor.[15]
  • Wanda Klaff (1922 in Danzig – executed 1946 in Biskupia Górka) [6] was a Nazi camp overseer
  • Heinz-Hermann Koelle (1925 in Danzig - 2011 in Berlin) was an aeronautical engineer,[16] made the preliminary designs for Saturn I
  • Erhard Krack (1931 in Danzig – 2000 in Berlin) was an East German politician and mayor of East Berlin from 1974 to 1990.
  • Rutka Laskier (1929 in Danzig – 1943 in the Auschwitz concentration camp) was a Jewish teenager [17] who chronicled the three months of her life during the Holocaust
  • Hanna-Renate Laurien (1928 in Danzig – 2010 Berlin) was a German [18] CDU politician
  • Jack Mandelbaum (born 1927 in Danzig) is a Holocaust survivor [19]
  • Rupert Neudeck (1939 in Danzig – 2016) correspondent for Deutschlandfunk and [20] founder of Cap Anamur an humanitarian organisation
  • Zygmunt Pawłowicz (1927 in Danzig – 2010 in Gdansk) ordained a Catholic priest in 1952,[21] was the Polish Auxiliary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gdańsk from 1985 until 2005
  • Avi Pazner (born 1937 in Danzig) is a retired Israeli diplomat [22]
  • Richard J. Pratt (1934 in Danzig – 2009 in Victoria, Australia) was a prominent Australian businessman,[23] chairman of Visy Industries. His family moved to Australia in 1938
  • Georg Preuß (1920 in Danzig – 1991 Clenze) was a mid-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS, a convicted war criminal.
  • Henry Rosovsky (born 1927 in Danzig) is an economic historian,[24] specializing in East Asia, born of Russian Jewish parents
  • Hermann Salomon (born 1938 in Danzig) is a German former javelin thrower [25] who competed in the 1960, 1964 and the 1968 Summer Olympics
  • Meir Shamgar (born 1925 in Danzig) [26] was President of the Israeli Supreme Court 1983/1995.
  • Zalman Shoval (born 1930 in Danzig) is an Israeli politician [27] and diplomat
  • Wolfgang Völz (1930 in Danzig – 2018 in Berlin) was a German actor,[28] known for his roles in theatre plays, TV shows, feature films and taped radio shows
  • F. K. Waechter (1937 in Danzig – 2005 in Frankfurt) was a German cartoonist, author and playwright


Politics[തിരുത്തുക]

Government[തിരുത്തുക]

Flag of the Danzig Senate.

DAN-62-Bank von Danzig-100 Gulden (1931, specimen).jpg

Danzig coat of arms depicted on a 100 gulden note (1931)
Heads of State of the Free City of Danzig[29]
Name Took office Left office Party
Presidents of the Danzig Senate
1 Heinrich Sahm 6 December 1920 10 January 1931 None
2 Ernst Ziehm 10 January 1931 20 June 1933 DNVP
3 Hermann Rauschning 20 June 1933 23 November 1934 NSDAP
4 Arthur Karl Greiser 23 November 1934 23 August 1939 NSDAP
State President
5 Albert Forster 23 August 1939 1 September 1939 NSDAP

ഇതും കാണുക[തിരുത്തുക]

അവലംബങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

  1. Loew, Peter Oliver (February 2011). Danzig – Biographie einer Stadt (ഭാഷ: German). C.H. Beck. p. 189. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  2. Samerski, Stefan (2003). Das Bistum Danzig in Lebensbildern (ഭാഷ: German). LIT Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 3-8258-6284-4.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  3. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; Mason 1946 എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.
  4. IMDb.com retrieved 21 October 2017
  5. The New York Times December 24, 2009 retrieved 21 October 2017
  6. 6.0 6.1 Stutthof Trial. Female guards in Nazi concentration camps Archived 2008 retrieved 21 October 2017
  7. IMDb retrieved 21 October 2017
  8. Olympic DB retrieved 21 October 2017
  9. Anna M. Cienciala. Obituary. Lawrence Journal-World retrieved 21 October 2017
  10. New York Times 8 Sept 2017 retrieved 21 October 2017
  11. Spiegel Online 04.02.2007 retrieved 21 October 2017
  12. Own website retrieved 21 October 2017
  13. BBC News, 13 April 2015 retrieved 21 October 2017
  14. Sports-reference.com retrieved 21 October 2017
  15. IMDb database retrieved 21 October 2017
  16. Resonance Publications, March–June 1999 retrieved 21 October 2017
  17. BBC 2009, The Secret Diary of the Holocaust retrieved 21 October 2017
  18. Spiegel Online 12.03.2009 retrieved 21 October 2017
  19. Midwest Center for Holocaust Education retrieved 21 October 2017
  20. DW.com retrieved 21 October 2017
  21. Catholic-Hierarchy retrieved 21 October 2017
  22. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs retrieved 21 October 2017
  23. Herald Sun April 28, 2009 retrieved 21 October 2017
  24. Harvard College, Department of Economics retrieved 21 October 2017
  25. Sports-reference.com retrieved 21 October 2017
  26. Israel's Holocaust and the Politics of Nationhood. Cambridge University Press 2005 p. 215 retrieved 21 October 2017
  27. Knesset website retrieved 21 October 2017
  28. IMDb retrieved 21 October 2017
  29. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; WS-Poland എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.

ബാഹ്യ ലിങ്കുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

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