ഫലകം:Infobox carbon

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
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കാർബൺ,  6C
Graphite-and-diamond-with-scale.jpg
Graphite (left) and diamond (right), two allotropes of carbon
General properties
Allotropesഗ്രാഫൈറ്റ്, വജ്രം
Appearanceഗ്രാഫൈറ്റ്: കറുപ്പ്
വജ്രം: തെളിഞ്ഞത്, നിറരഹിതം
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)[12.009612.0116] conventional: 12.011
കാർബൺ in the periodic table
[[Hydrogen|Hydrogen [[Helium|Helium
[[Lithium|Lithium [[Beryllium|Beryllium [[Boron|Boron [[Carbon|Carbon [[Nitrogen|Nitrogen [[Oxygen|Oxygen [[Fluorine|Fluorine [[Neon|Neon
[[Sodium|Sodium [[Magnesium|Magnesium [[Aluminium|Aluminium [[Silicon|Silicon [[Phosphorus|Phosphorus [[Sulfur|Sulfur [[Chlorine|Chlorine [[Argon|Argon
[[Potassium|Potassium [[Calcium|Calcium [[Scandium|Scandium [[Titanium|Titanium [[Vanadium|Vanadium [[Chromium|Chromium [[Manganese|Manganese [[Iron|Iron [[Cobalt|Cobalt [[Nickel|Nickel [[Copper|Copper [[Zinc|Zinc [[Gallium|Gallium [[Germanium|Germanium [[Arsenic|Arsenic [[Selenium|Selenium [[Bromine|Bromine [[Krypton|Krypton
[[Rubidium|Rubidium [[Strontium|Strontium [[Yttrium|Yttrium [[Zirconium|Zirconium [[Niobium|Niobium [[Molybdenum|Molybdenum [[Technetium|Technetium [[Ruthenium|Ruthenium [[Rhodium|Rhodium [[Palladium|Palladium [[Silver|Silver [[Cadmium|Cadmium [[Indium|Indium [[Tin|Tin [[Antimony|Antimony [[Tellurium|Tellurium [[Iodine|Iodine [[Xenon|Xenon
[[Caesium|Caesium [[Barium|Barium [[Lanthanum|Lanthanum [[Cerium|Cerium [[Praseodymium|Praseodymium [[Neodymium|Neodymium [[Promethium|Promethium [[Samarium|Samarium [[Europium|Europium [[Gadolinium|Gadolinium [[Terbium|Terbium [[Dysprosium|Dysprosium [[Holmium|Holmium [[Erbium|Erbium [[Thulium|Thulium [[Ytterbium|Ytterbium [[Lutetium|Lutetium [[Hafnium|Hafnium [[Tantalum|Tantalum [[Tungsten|Tungsten [[Rhenium|Rhenium [[Osmium|Osmium [[Iridium|Iridium [[Platinum|Platinum [[Gold|Gold [[Mercury (element)|Mercury (element) [[Thallium|Thallium [[Lead|Lead [[Bismuth|Bismuth [[Polonium|Polonium [[Astatine|Astatine [[Radon|Radon
[[Francium|Francium [[Radium|Radium [[Actinium|Actinium [[Thorium|Thorium [[Protactinium|Protactinium [[Uranium|Uranium [[Neptunium|Neptunium [[Plutonium|Plutonium [[Americium|Americium [[Curium|Curium [[Berkelium|Berkelium [[Californium|Californium [[Einsteinium|Einsteinium [[Fermium|Fermium [[Mendelevium|Mendelevium [[Nobelium|Nobelium [[Lawrencium|Lawrencium [[Rutherfordium|Rutherfordium [[Dubnium|Dubnium [[Seaborgium|Seaborgium [[Bohrium|Bohrium [[Hassium|Hassium [[Meitnerium|Meitnerium [[Darmstadtium|Darmstadtium [[Roentgenium|Roentgenium [[Copernicium|Copernicium [[Nihonium|Nihonium [[Flerovium|Flerovium [[Moscovium|Moscovium [[Livermorium|Livermorium [[Tennessine|Tennessine [[Oganesson|Oganesson


C

Si
ബോറോൺകാർബൺനൈട്രജൻ
Atomic number (Z)6
Groupgroup 14 (carbon group)
Periodperiod 2
Blockp-block
Element category  reactive nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell
2, 4
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Sublimation point3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density (near r.t.)amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g/cm3[1]
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
Triple point4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[2][3]
Heat of fusiongraphite: 117 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacitygraphite: 8.517 J/(mol·K)
diamond: 6.155 J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1,[4] +2, +3,[5] +4[6] (a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radiussp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals radius170 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of കാർബൺ
Other properties
Crystal structuregraphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: കാർബൺ

(black)
Crystal structurediamond: ​face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for diamond: കാർബൺ

(clear)
Speed of sound thin roddiamond: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansiondiamond: 0.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[7]
Thermal conductivitygraphite: 119–165 W/(m·K)
diamond: 900–2300 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivitygraphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[8]
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[9]
Magnetic susceptibility−5.9·10−6 (graph.) cm3/mol[10]
Young's modulusdiamond: 1050 GPa[7]
Shear modulusdiamond: 478 GPa[7]
Bulk modulusdiamond: 442 GPa[7]
Poisson ratiodiamond: 0.1[7]
Mohs hardnessgraphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS Number7440-44-0
History
DiscoveryEgyptians and Sumerians[11] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier[12] (1789)
Main isotopes of കാർബൺ
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% stable
13C 1.1% stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
| references
B ←

i'box B

iso
6
C E
→ N

i'box N

Data sets read by {{Infobox element}}
Name and identifiers
Top image
  image caption
  image alt
Pronunciation
Category (enwiki)
Standard atomic weight
  most stable isotope
Oxidation states
Spectral lines image

References

  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  2. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5.
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon. 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027.
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-12-06.
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-12-06.
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds". ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-12-06.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. "Material Properties- Misc Materials". www.nde-ed.org. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 12 November 2016.
  9. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  10. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
  11. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2008-09-12.
  12. Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-11-24.
  13. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-12-06.
  14. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-12-06.
  15. "Carbon: Binary compounds". ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-12-06.

Four of these are named references. They may be cited in the containing article as

  • <ref name="CRC" /> for the source CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
  • <ref name="triple2" /> for the source by Haaland
  • <ref name="triple3" /> for the Savvatimskiy
  • <ref name="ioffe" /> for the Ioffe Institute Database

ഫലകം:വിവരണം/ഭാഗം2

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