ഫലകം:Infobox calcium

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
(ഫലകം:Infobox കാൽസ്യം എന്ന താളിൽ നിന്നും തിരിച്ചുവിട്ടതു പ്രകാരം)
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കാൽസ്യം,  20Ca
Calcium unter Argon Schutzgasatmosphäre.jpg
General properties
Appearancedull gray, silver; with a pale yellow tint[1]
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)40.078(4)[2]
കാൽസ്യം in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Mg

Ca

Sr
പൊട്ടാസ്യംകാൽസ്യംസ്കാൻഡ്യം
Atomic number (Z)20
Groupgroup 2 (alkaline earth metals)
Periodperiod 4
Blocks-block
Element category  ക്ഷാര ലോഹം
Electron configuration[Ar] 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1115 K ​(842 °C, ​1548 °F)
Boiling point1757 K ​(1484 °C, ​2703 °F)
Density (near r.t.)1.55 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)1.378 g/cm3
Heat of fusion8.54 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization154.7 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.929 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 864 956 1071 1227 1443 1755
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1,[3] +2 (a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.00
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 589.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1145.4 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4912.4 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 197 pm
Covalent radius176±10 pm
Van der Waals radius231 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of കാൽസ്യം
Other properties
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for കാൽസ്യം
Speed of sound thin rod3810 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion22.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity201 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity33.6 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+40.0·10−6 cm3/mol[4]
Young's modulus20 GPa
Shear modulus7.4 GPa
Bulk modulus17 GPa
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs hardness1.75
Brinell hardness170–416 MPa
CAS Number7440-70-2
History
Discovery and first isolationHumphry Davy (1808)
Main isotopes of കാൽസ്യം
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
40Ca 96.941% stable
41Ca trace 1.03×105 y ε 41K
42Ca 0.647% stable
43Ca 0.135% stable
44Ca 2.086% stable
45Ca syn 162.7 d β 45Sc
46Ca 0.004% stable
47Ca syn 4.5 d β 47Sc
γ
48Ca 0.187% 6.4×1019 y ββ 48Ti
| references
K ←

i'box K

iso
20
Ca E
→ Sc

i'box Sc

Data sets read by {{Infobox element}}
Name and identifiers
Top image
  image caption
  image alt
Pronunciation
Category (enwiki)
Standard atomic weight
  most stable isotope
Oxidation states
Spectral lines image

References

  1. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 112. ISBN 0-08-037941-9.
  2. Meija, J.; മറ്റുള്ളവർക്കൊപ്പം. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Krieck, Sven; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias (2010). "Mechanistic Elucidation of the Formation of the Inverse Ca(I) Sandwich Complex [(thf)3Ca(μ-C6H3-1,3,5-Ph3)Ca(thf)3] and Stability of Aryl-Substituted Phenylcalcium Complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 (35): 12492–12501. doi:10.1021/ja105534w. PMID 20718434.
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.

Two of these are named references. They may be cited in the containing article as

  • <ref name="CIAAW2016" /> for the source Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (from subtemplates used by {{Infobox element}})
  • <ref name="West" /> for the source edited by Kneck et al.

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