Illustration of Peter Pan playing the pipes, by F. D. Bedford from Peter and Wendy (1911)
|First appearance||The Little White Bird (1902)|
|Created by||J. M. Barrie|
|Alias||The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up|
സ്കോട്ടിഷ് നോവലിസ്റ്റും നാടകകൃത്തുമായ ജെ.എം.ബാരിയാണ് പീറ്റർ പാൻ എന്ന് കഥാപാത്രത്തെ സൃഷ്ട്ടിച്ചത്. ഒരു വികൃതി പയ്യന് പറക്കാനും സാധിക്കുകയും എന്നാൽ വളരാൻ കഴിയാത്ത പീറ്റർ പാൻ തന്റെ നിത്യ ബാല്യത്തിൽ നെവർലാൻഡ് എന്ന ചെറിയ ദ്വീപിൽ ചെയ്യുന്ന സാഹസിക പ്രവർത്തികളാണ് ഇതിന്റെ കഥ. പീറ്ററാണ് കുട്ടികളുടെ നേതാവ്. ജലകന്യകയും ലോസ്റ്റ്ബോയ്സ് എന്ന് അമേരിക്കൻ കുട്ടികളും കഥയിൽ ഉണ്ട്. ബാരിയുടെ രണ്ട് വ്യത്യസ്ത കഥകൾ കൂട്ടിയോജിപ്പിച്ചാണ് ഈ കഥ ഉണ്ടാക്കിയത്. ഇതിലെ കഥാപാത്രങ്ങൾ വിവിധ മാധ്യമങ്ങളിൽ വ്യത്യസ്ത രൂപത്തിൽ പുനരവതരിപ്പിക്കുകയുണ്ടായി. അവയിൽ അനിമേഷൻ ചലചിത്രങ്ങളും നാടക ചിത്രങ്ങളും ടി.വി ഷോകളും ഉൽപ്പെടുന്നു.
- 1904 - Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (play): Peter brings Wendy and her brothers to Neverland, where he has a showdown with his nemesis, Captain Hook. This play was adapted as a novel by Barrie. Variations and adaptations have been produced in various media.
- 1906 - Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens: an origin story where the infant Peter flies away from his home, takes up residence in Kensington Gardens and makes friends with the fairies. It is a "book-within-a-book" that was first published in Barrie's The Little White Bird in 1902.
- 1911 - Peter and Wendy (novel), later published as Peter Pan and Wendy, adapted as a novel from the play, it also incorporates events of Barrie's sequel play, An Afterthought.
- 2004-2009: Peter and the Starcatchers, Peter and the Shadow Thieves (2006), Peter and the Secret of Rundoon (2007), Peter and the Sword of Mercy (2009), a series of novels by Dave Barry and Ridley Pearson: Peter leaves a London orphanage for a series of adventures, which offer an origin story for Captain Hook, fairies, his abilities, and the Lost Boys. Along with Molly Aster, Peter takes on many enemies and saves the world on more than one occasion. Tinker Bell is introduced.
- Peter Pan in Scarlet (2006), a novel by Geraldine McCaughrean: Wendy, John, and most of the Lost Boys return to Neverland, where Peter has begun to take Captain Hook's place. It serves as an official sequel to Peter and Wendy.
ആദ്യ രചനയെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയ ചലച്ചിത്രങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]
- 1924 – Peter Pan, a silent film released by Paramount Pictures, the first film adaptation of the play by J. M. Barrie, starring Betty Bronson as Peter.
- 1953 – Peter Pan, an animated film produced by Walt Disney adapted from the play.
- 2003 – Peter Pan, a live action film released by Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Revolution Studios, directed by P. J. Hogan, starring Jeremy Sumpter as Peter and Jason Isaacs as Hook.
- 2015 – Peter and Wendy, a two-hour drama based on J.M. Barrie's novel to be aired on the British TV channel ITV, produced by Headline Pictures, with Stanley Tucci as Captain Hook, Paloma Faith as Tinker Bell, Laura Fraser as Mrs. Darling and Zac Sutcliffe as Peter.
- 1991 – Hook, a live-action sequel directed by Steven Spielberg, starring Robin Williams as the adult Peter Banning, Dustin Hoffman as Hook and Julia Roberts as Tinker Bell.
- 2002 – Return to Never Land, an animated sequel to the 1953 Disney film.
- 2015 – Pan, a live-action origin film directed by Joe Wright, released by Warner Bros., starring Levi Miller as Peter, Hugh Jackman as Blackbeard and Garrett Hedlund as Hook.
ജനകീയമായ മറ്റ് സപ്രേക്ഷണങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]
- Since their 1953 animated film, Walt Disney has continued to use Peter Pan as a character. The studio featured him in the sequel film Return to Neverland, in their parks as a meetable character, and as the protagonist of the dark ride, Peter Pan's Flight. He also appears in House of Mouse, Mickey's Magical Christmas, and the Kingdom Hearts video games.
- J. R. R. Tolkien's biographer Humphrey Carpenter has speculated that Tolkien's impressions of a 1910 production of Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham "may have had a little to do with" his original conception of the Elves of Middle Earth.
- In the television series Once Upon A Time, a malevolent version of Peter Pan, portrayed by Robbie Kay, appears as the main villain in the first half of the show's third season. It is revealed that he was originally a cowardly trickster named Malcolm, and Rumpelstiltskin's father.
The name Peter Pan has been adopted for various purposes over the years:
- Three thoroughbred racehorses have been given the name, the first born in 1904.
- Several businesses have adopted the name, including Peter Pan Bus Lines, Peter Pan peanut butter, and Peter Pan Records.
- In the early 1960s, some Cuban families sent their children to resettle in Miami in an emergency effort calculated to save the children from perceived potential mistreatment under the Castro socialist regime; the program was called Operation Peter Pan (or Operación Pedro Pan).
- American psychologist Dr. Dan Kiley popularised the Peter Pan syndrome (puer aeternus) in his 1983 book, The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up. He described individuals (usually male) with underdeveloped maturity. His next book, The Wendy Dilemma (1984), advises women romantically involved with "Peter Pans" how to improve their relationships.
- Japanese manga artist, Mayu Sakai, appropriated the English term for her series, Peter Pan Syndrome.
- Peterpan is the former name for an Indonesian pop-rock band, now called Noah.
- Barrie commissioned a statue of Peter Pan by sculptor George Frampton which was erected overnight in Kensington Gardens on 30 April 1912 as a May Day surprise to the children of London. Seven statues have been cast from the original mould. The other six are located in:
- Egmont Park, Brussels, Belgium, 1924
- Bowring Park, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, Bowring Park, 1925
- Johnson Park, Camden, New Jersey, United States, 1926
- Queens Gardens, Perth, Western Australia, 1927
- Sefton Park, Liverpool, England, 1928
- Glenn Gould Park, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1929
- The town council of Melbourne, Australia, commissioned a statue of Peter Pan in 1926; it is now located in Melbourne Zoo.
- A statue of Pan by Alex Proudfoot RSA, Principal of Glasgow School of Art, was erected at the Mearnskirk Hospital for children in Glasgow in 1949, commissioned by Alfred Ellsworth in memory of his friend Dr John A Wilson, first superintendent of Mearnskirk Hospital. Wilson had also been a school friend of J.M. Barrie.
- A statue by Ivan Mitford-Barberton was commissioned by Vyvyan and Gwen Watson in remembrance of their son Peter and given in 1959 to the Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital in Western Cape, South Africa.
- A pair of statues by Cecil Thomas, one showing Peter Pan and Tinker Bell, and the other Wendy and the Darling children, have been located in Dunedin Botanic Gardens in Dunedin, New Zealand since the 1960s.
- Two bronze casts of a statue by Alistair Smart, originally commissioned by the Angus Milling Company in 1972, are in Kirriemuir, Scotland, one in the main town square and the other in the Peter Pan Garden by Barrie's Birthplace, now owned by the National Trust of Scotland.
- A bronze statue by Diarmuid Byron O'Connor was commissioned by Great Ormond Street Hospital in London and unveiled in 2000, showing Peter blowing fairy dust, with Tinker Bell added in 2005.
Statue in Kirriemuir, Scotland
Statue in Perth, Australia
Statue in St. John's, Canada
Statue in Dunedin, New Zealand
- Carpenter, Humphrey (1977), Tolkien: A Biography, New York: Ballantine Books, ISBN 0-04-928037-6 Cite has empty unknown parameter:
- Kiley, Dr. Dan, The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up. Avon Books, 1983, ISBN 978 0380688906
- Various materials compiled from University of Granada (May 3, 2007). "Overprotecting Parents Can Lead Children To Develop 'Peter Pan Syndrome'". ScienceDaily. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 12 September 2012.
- Kiley, Dr. Dan (1984). The Wendy Dilemma: When Women Stop Mothering Their Men. Arbor House Publishing. ASIN B000O6BTHI. ISBN 9780877956259.
- "Peter Pan Syndrome". 20 September 2010. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 12 September 2012.
- "Peter Pan Statue". Public Art Around the World. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2012-05-22.
- "Peter Pan statue regains panflute". City of Brussels. ശേഖരിച്ചത് March 13, 2014.
- "Johnson Park Restoration". Johnson-park.camden.rutgers.edu. 24 September 1926. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 8 May 2010.
- "Perth Vista-Queens Gardens". Globe Vista. 2008.
- "Peter Pan". Liverpoolmuseums.org.uk. 16 June 1928. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 8 May 2010.
- Cities of the World, Lostrivers.ca
- Peter Pan Statue Melbourne Zoo
- "Mearnskirk Hospital". Portal to the Past. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-06-17.
- "Story of the Peter Pan Statue". Childrenshospitaltrust.org.za. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-06-17.
- "New life for Peter Pan and Wendy - the art and science of bronze conservation in Dunedin". nzine.co.nz. 3 December 2002. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 23 October 2012.
- West, Mark I. (2003). A Children's Literature Tour of Great Britain. Scarecrow Press p. 17.
- "The Great Ormond Street Hospital "Tinker Bell" by Diarmuid Byron-O'Connor". Fairiesworld.com. 2005-09-29. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-06-17.
- Peter Pan at Project Gutenberg (1991 Millennium Fulcrum Edition)
- Peter Pan: over 100 years of the boy who wouldn’t grow up from the Museum of the City of New York Collections blog