ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക ഉന്മൂലനത്താവളം

Coordinates: 52°37′51.85″N 22°3′11.01″E / 52.6310694°N 22.0530583°E / 52.6310694; 22.0530583
വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
Extermination camp
Concrete blocks marking the path of the former railway spur at Treblinka
ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക ഉന്മൂലനത്താവളം is located in Poland
ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക ഉന്മൂലനത്താവളം
Location of Treblinka in Poland.
Coordinates52°37′51.85″N 22°3′11.01″E / 52.6310694°N 22.0530583°E / 52.6310694; 22.0530583
Known forGenocide during the Holocaust
LocationNear Treblinka, General Government (German-occupied Poland)
Built by
Operated bySS-Totenkopfverbände
Original useExtermination camp
First builtApril 1942 – July 1942
Operational22 July 1942 – October 1943[3]
Number of gas chambers6
InmatesJews, mostly Polish
Number of inmatesEst. 1,000 Sonderkommando
KilledEst. 700,000–900,000
Liberated byClosed in late 1943
Notable inmates
Notable books

രണ്ടാംലോകമഹായുദ്ധകാലത്ത് അധിനിവേശപോളണ്ടിൽ നാസിജർമനി നിർമ്മിച്ച് പ്രവർത്തിപ്പിച്ച ഒരു ഉന്മൂലനകേന്ദ്രമാണ് ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക (Treblinka). (ഉച്ചരിക്കുന്നത് [trɛˈblʲinka])[ii] [2] വാഴ്സയ്ക്ക് വടക്കുകിഴക്കുമാറി ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക തീവണ്ടിനിലയത്തിൽ (ഇന്നത്തെ Masovian Voivodeship) നിന്നും 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) തെക്കായിട്ടായിരുന്നു ഈ ക്യാമ്പ് സ്ഥിതിചെയ്തിരുന്നത്. 1942 ജൂലൈ 23 മുതൽ 1943 ഒക്ടോബർ 19 വരെ ഓപറേഷൻ റീൻഹാർഡിന്റെ ഭാഗമായി അന്തിമപരിഹാരത്തിന്റെ ഏറ്റവും ക്രൂരമായ കാലഘട്ടത്തിലാണ് ഈ ക്യാമ്പ് നിലനിന്നിരുന്നത്.[3] ഇക്കാലത്ത് ഇവിടെ ഏതാണ്ട് 700,000 മുതൽ 900,000 വരെ ജൂതന്മാർ ഇവിടത്തെ ഗ്യാസ് ചേമ്പറിൽ കൊല്ലപ്പെട്ടു.[6][7] അതോടൊപ്പം  2,000 റോമാനി ജനതയ്ക്കും ജീവൻ നഷ്ടമായി.[8] ഓഷ്‌വിറ്റ്‌സിനുശേഷം ഏറ്റവുമധികം  ജൂതരെ കൂട്ടക്കൊല ചെയ്തത് ട്രെബ്ലിങ്കയിലാണ്.[9]


The Wannsee Conference, where the plans for Operation Reinhard and the Treblinka extermination camp were outlined, took place at this villa.


Treblinka on the map of occupied Poland with Nazi extermination camps marked with black and white skulls. General Government territory: centre. Distrikt Galizien: lower–right. Provinz Oberschlesien with Auschwitz: lower–left. The Nazi-Soviet demarcation line splitting the Second Republic in two is marked in red – starting point for Operation Barbarossa of 1941.

ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക 1[തിരുത്തുക]

Official announcement of the founding of Treblinka I, the forced-labour camp

ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക 2[തിരുത്തുക]

Memorial at Treblinka II, with 17,000 quarry stones symbolising gravestones. Inscriptions indicate places of Holocaust train departures with at least 5,000 victims and selected ghettos from across Poland.
The 1944 aerial photo of Treblinka II after "clean-up". The new farmhouse and livestock building are visible to the lower left.[10] The photograph is overlaid with outlines of already-dismantled structures (marked in red/orange). On the left are the SS and Hiwi guards living quarters (1) with barracks defined by the surrounding walkways. At the bottom (2) are the railway ramp and unloading platform (centre), marked with the red arrow. The "road to heaven"[11] is marked with a dashed line. The undressing barracks for men and women, surrounded by a solid fence with no view of the outside, are marked with two rectangles. The location of the new, big gas chambers (3) is marked with a cross. The burial pits, dug with a crawler excavator, are in light yellow.

കൂട്ടക്കൊലയുടെ രീതി[തിരുത്തുക]

പോളണ്ടുകാരായ ജൂതന്മാർ[തിരുത്തുക]

Jews being loaded onto trains to Treblinka at the Warsaw Ghetto's Umschlagplatz, 1942

വിദേശികളായ ജൂതന്മാരും റൊമാനി ജനതയും[തിരുത്തുക]

Standard Holocaust locomotive, DRB Class 52

ഗ്യാസ് ചേമ്പറുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Telegram to Berlin from the deputy commander of Aktion Reinhard, Hermann Höfle, 15 January 1943 listing the number of arrivals in the extermination camps, 1942 total. Camp Treblinka (T): 713,555 Jews
Deportation of 10,000 Polish Jews to Treblinka during the liquidation of the ghetto in Siedlce beginning 23 August 1942[12]

സംസ്കരിച്ച കുഴികൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Stone memorial resembling one of the original cremation pits where the bodies were burned. It is a flat grave marker constructed of crushed and cemented black basalt symbolising burnt charcoal. The actual human ashes were mixed with sand and spread over 22,000 square metres (237,000 square feet).[13]

ക്യാമ്പിന്റെ പ്രവർത്തനരീതി[തിരുത്തുക]

Members of SS-Totenkopfverbände from Treblinka (from left): Paul Bredow, Willi Mentz, Max Möller and Josef Hirtreiter
പ്രമാണം:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-F0918-0201-001, KZ Treblinka, Lageplan (Zeichnung) II.jpg
Sketch plan of Treblinka II produced during Stangl's 1967 trial in Germany. Missing from it are the swathes of land around cremation pits with burial trenches excavated by a mechanical digger (see aerial photo).

ട്രെബ്ലിങ്കയിലെ തടവുകാരുടെ കലാപം[തിരുത്തുക]

Burning Treblinka II perimeter during the prisoner uprising, 2 August 1943. Barracks were set ablaze, including a tank of petrol which exploded setting fire to the surrounding structures. This clandestine photograph was taken by Franciszek Ząbecki.

കലാപത്തിന്റെ ദിനവും രക്ഷപ്പെട്ടവരും[തിരുത്തുക]

Survivor Samuel Willenberg presenting his drawings of Treblinka II in the Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom at the site of the camp. On the right, the "Lazaret" killing station.


ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക 2 -ന്റെ പ്രവർത്തന നേതൃത്വം[തിരുത്തുക]

ഇംഫ്രീഡ് എബറൽ[തിരുത്തുക]

Irmfried Eberl, the first commandant of Treblinka II, removed because of his alleged incompetence in running the camp

ഫ്രാൻസ് സ്റ്റാംഗൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

പ്രമാണം:Stangl, Franz.jpg
Franz Stangl, the second and longest-serving commandant of Treblinka II

ട്രെബ്ലിങ്ക ഗാനം[തിരുത്തുക]

പ്രമാണം:Kurt Hubert Franz.jpg
Kurt Franz, deputy commandant under Eberl and Stangl and the last commandant of Treblinka II

കുർട്ട് ഫ്രാൻസ്[തിരുത്തുക]

സോവിയറ്റുകളുടെ വരവ്[തിരുത്തുക]

സംരക്ഷിക്കാനുള്ള ആദ്യശ്രമങ്ങൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

Treblinka memorial (2005)

സ്മാരകത്തിന്റെ നിർമ്മാണം[തിരുത്തുക]


The Holocaust "Güterwagen" wagon holding an average of 100 victims, occupied Poland

ആദ്യ കണക്കുകൾ[തിരുത്തുക]

കോടതികളിൽ പ്രദർശിപ്പിച്ചതും സത്യവാങ്‌മൂലങ്ങളും[തിരുത്തുക]

പ്രമാണം:Treblinka deportations Grossaktion Warsaw.png
Timeline of deportations to Treblinka during Grossaktion Warsaw, July 1942 to September 1942 (graph)

ഹോഫ്‌ൾ ടെലഗ്രാം[തിരുത്തുക]

കണക്കുകളുടെ പട്ടിക[തിരുത്തുക]

Estimate Source Notes Year Work[7]
at least 700,000 Helmut Krausnick first West German estimate; used during trial of Kurt Franz 1965 [14]
at least 700,000 Adalbert Rückerl Director of the Central Authority for Investigation into Nazi Crime in Ludwigsburg[15] N/A
at least 700,000 Joseph Billig French historian 1973
700,000–800,000 Czesław Madajczyk Polish historian 1970
700,000–900,000 Robin O’Neil from Belzec: Stepping Stone to Genocide; Hitler's answer to the Jewish Question, published by JewishGen Yizkor Books Project 2008 [14]
713,555 Höfle Telegram discovered in 2001; official Nazi estimate up to the end of 1942 1942 [16]
at least 750,000 Michael Berenbaum from his encyclopedia entry on Treblinka 2012 Encyclopædia Britannica[9]
at least 750,000 Raul Hilberg American Holocaust historian 1985 The Destruction of European Jews
780,000 Zdzisław Łukaszkiewicz Polish historian responsible for the first estimate of the death count based on 156 transports with 5,000 prisoners each, published in his monograph Obóz zagłady w Treblince 1947
780,863 Jacek Andrzej Młynarczyk cited by Timothy Snyder; combines Hölfe Telegram with undated German evidence from 1943 2004 [17]
at least 800,000 Treblinka camp museum uses Franciszek Ząbecki's evidence and evidence from the ghettos N/A
850,000 Yitzhak Arad Israeli historian who estimates 763,000 deaths between July 1942 and April 1943 alone[18] 1983 Treblinka, Hell and Revolt[19]
at least 850,000 Martin Gilbert British historian 1993
870,000 Yad Vashem Israel's Holocaust museum N/A [20]
870,000 to 925,000 United States Holocaust Museum from "Treblinka: Chronology" article; excludes the deaths from forced labour in Treblinka I N/A [21]
876,000 Simon Wiesenthal Center 738,000 Jews from the General Government; 107,000 from Bialystok; 29,000 Jews from elsewhere in Europe; and 2,000 Gypsies N/A [22]
at least 900,000 Wolfgang Scheffler second West German estimate; used during trial of Franz Stangl 1970
912,000 Manfred Burba German historian 2000
at least 1,200,000 Franciszek Ząbecki Polish eyewitness 1977 Old and New Memories
1,297,000 Piotr Ząbecki revision of Franciszek Ząbecki's estimate by his son Piotr 2013 He was a humble man[23]
1,582,000 Ryszard Czarkowski Polish historian 1989
3,000,000 Vasily Grossman Soviet reporter 1946 The Hell of Treblinka

Treblinka trials[തിരുത്തുക]

Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal, pictured here in 1982, was responsible for hunting down Franz Stangl in Brazil.

Material gain[തിരുത്തുക]

Archaeological studies[തിരുത്തുക]

പ്രമാണം:Treblinka tile.jpg
One of the tiles found during the archaeological dig, providing the first physical evidence for the existence of the gas chambers at Treblinka

March of the Living[തിരുത്തുക]

Operation Reinhard leadership and Treblinka commandants[തിരുത്തുക]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of individuals responsible for Treblinka extermination camp.
Name Rank Function and Notes Citation
Operation Reinhard leadership      
  Odilo Globocnik SS-Hauptsturmführer and SS-Polizeiführer at the time (captain and SS Police Chief) head of Operation Reinhard [24][25]
  Hermann Höfle SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) coordinator of Operation Reinhard [26]
  Christian Wirth SS-Hauptsturmführer at the time (captain) inspector for Operation Reinhard [27]
  Richard Thomalla SS-Obersturmführer at the time (first lieutenant) head of death camp construction during Operation Reinhard [24][27]
  Erwin Lambert SS-Unterscharführer (corporal) head of gas chamber construction during Operation Reinhard (large gas chambers) [28][29]
Treblinka commandants      
 Theodor van Eupen SS-Sturmbannführer (major), Commandant of Treblinka I Arbeitslager, 15 November 1941 – July 1944 (cleanup) head of the forced-labour camp [30]
  Irmfried Eberl SS-Obersturmführer (first lieutenant), Commandant of Treblinka II, 11 July 1942 – 26 August 1942 transferred to Berlin due to incompetence [24]
  Franz Stangl SS-Obersturmführer (first lieutenant), 2nd Commandant of Treblinka II, 1 September 1942 – August 1943 transferred to Treblinka from Sobibor extermination camp [24]
  Kurt Franz SS-Untersturmführer (second lieutenant), last Commandant of Treblinka II, August (gassing) – November 1943 promoted from deputy commandant in August 1943 following camp prisoner revolt [24][28]
Deputy commandants      
  Karl Pötzinger SS-Oberscharführer (staff sergeant), Deputy commandant of Treblinka II head of cremation [31]
  Heinrich Matthes SS-Scharführer (sergeant), Deputy commandant chief of the extermination area [28][32][33]



  1. Yitzhak Arad gives his name as Jacob Wiernik.[4]
  2. In literature, the term "Treblinka" refers to both the German forced-labour camp Treblinka I and the extermination camp Treblinka II; overwhelmingly the latter.


  1. Webb & Chocholatý 2014, പുറം. 20.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Arad 1987, പുറം. 37.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, പുറം. 125.
  4. Arad 1987, പുറം. 209.
  5. Wiernik 1945.
  6. Roca, Xavier (2010). "Comparative Efficacy of the Extermination Methods in Auschwitz and Operation Reinhard" (PDF). Equip Revista HMiC (Història Moderna i Contemporània). University of Barcelona. 8. p. 204 (4/15 in current document).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, പുറം. 114.
  8. Huttenbach, Henry R. (1991). "The Romani Porajmos: The Nazi Genocide of Europe's Gypsies". Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. Routledge: 380–381. doi:10.1080/00905999108408209.
  9. 9.0 9.1 {{cite encyclopedia}}: Empty citation (help)
  10. National Archives (2014), Aerial Photos, Washington, D.C., Made available at the Mapping Treblinka webpage by ARC.
  11. Smith 2010.
  12. Statistical data: "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" Archived 2016-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. by Virtual Shtetl of the Museum of the History of the Polish Jews , as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon, (പോളിഷ്) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters of ARC. Accessed 8 June 2014.
  13. Cywiński 2013, Treblinka.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Roca, Xavier (2010). "Comparative Efficacy of the Extermination Methods in Auschwitz and Operation Reinhard" (PDF). Revista HMiC, vol. VIII. Barcelona: Departament d'Història Moderna i Contemporània de la UAB. p. 202 (4/15 in current document). ISSN 1696-4403. Direct download, 188 KB. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  15. Sereny 2013, പുറം. 12.
  16. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; HöfleTelegram എന്ന പേരിലെ അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് എഴുത്തൊന്നും നൽകിയിട്ടില്ല.
  17. Snyder 2012, പുറം. 408.
  18. Arad 1987, പുറം. 223.
  19. Kenneth McVay; Yad Vashem. "The "Final Solution"". Operation Reinhard: Extermination Camps of Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka. The Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 July 2014. The total number of victims killed in Treblinka was 850,000 (Yitzhak Arad, Treblinka, Hell and Revolt, Tel Aviv, 1983, pp 261–265.)
  20. "Treblinka". Yad Vashem. Archived from the original on 2014-10-08. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
  21. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; USHMM എന്ന പേരിലെ അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് എഴുത്തൊന്നും നൽകിയിട്ടില്ല.
  22. Grossman 2005, പുറം. 550.
  23. ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; Piotr എന്ന പേരിലെ അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് എഴുത്തൊന്നും നൽകിയിട്ടില്ല.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 Vanderwerff, Hans (22 July 2009), Extermination camp Treblinka, The Holocaust: Lest we forget, archived from the original on 17 May 2011, retrieved 10 January 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  25. Blatt 2000, പുറങ്ങൾ. 3, 92.
  26. Blatt 2000, പുറം. 10.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Blatt 2000, പുറം. 14.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 S.J., H.E.A.R.T 2007, Trials.
  29. Blatt 2000, പുറം. 19.
  30. Chodzko, Mieczyslaw (2010). Évadé de Treblinka. Editions Le Manuscrit. pp. 215–216. ISBN 2-304-23223-X. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  31. Webb & Lisciotto 2007.
  32. Various authors. "Excerpts from testimonies of Nazi SS-men at Treblinka: Stangl, Mentz, Franz & Matthes". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 1 November 2013. Source: Yitzhak Arad 1987; E. Klee, W. Dressen, V. Riess 1988 (The Good Old Days)
  33. Arad 1987, പുറം. 121.