കോൺസ്റ്റാന്റിനോപ്പിളിന്റെ പതനം

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.
Fall of Constantinople
The Byzantine–Ottoman Wars and Ottoman wars in Europe ഭാഗം
Constantinople 1453.jpg
The last siege of Constantinople, contemporary 15th century French miniature
തിയതി 6 April – 29 May 1453 (1 month, 3 weeks and 2 days)
സ്ഥലം Constantinople (present-day Istanbul)
ഫലം
  • Decisive Ottoman victory[2] and end of the Byzantine Empire
Belligerents
പടനായകരും മറ്റു നേതാക്കളും
ശക്തി
  • 7,000[6]
  • 8,000[7]
  • 10,000[8]
  • 12,000[9]
  • 26 ships[10]
  • 600 Ottoman defectors[11]
  • Of the 7,000 - 10,000 soldiers in the Byzantine army, 700 were both Genoese and Greek from the island of Chios and Genoa (400 were recruited at Genoa and 300 at Chios), 800 soldiers lead by the Venetians (mostly of Cretan origin, and renowned for having fought heroically during the siege), 200 men from Cardinal Isidore, all of which were archers. By nationality, there were 5,000 Greeks and 2,000 foreigners, mostly of Genoese and Venetian origin.[12]

[a]:
50,000[13][14][15][16]– 80,000[17][18][19]
[b]:
100,000[7]–160,000[20][21]–200,000[3] to 300,000[22]

നാശനഷ്ടങ്ങൾ
* 4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[27][28]
30,000 were enslaved or deported[29]
Unknown but heavy[30][29]
  • a: Figures according to recent estimates and Ottoman archival data. The Ottoman Empire, for demographic reasons, would not have been able to put more than 80,000 men into the field at the time.[31]
  • b: Figures according to contemporaneous Western/Christian estimates[31]
  • c: More specifically, the Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty
  • d: The Kingdom of Sicily mainly donated ships and a few soldiers, it was not official however, and was done by several Cardinals.
  • e: The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because their Doge was on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship. They also did not want the Ottomans to interfere with their trade in the Black Sea and Mediterranean. The Venetians' efforts mainly included giving Constantine XI ships and a total of 800 soldiers in February 1453. The Venetians also promised that a larger fleet would arrive to save Constantine, this fleet would be full of ammunition, fresh soldiers and supplies. This fleet never came.
  • f: The Genoese captain Giovanni Giustiniani Longo was wounded in battle, but managed to escape, he died during the early days of June 1453.
  • g: This Venetian captain was not an official sent by Venice, instead, he was the leader of the Venetian colony in the city and guaranteed his full support by the Ottomans navally, by supplying them with the ships the Venetians had in their harbour.[4]

കിഴക്കൻ റോമാ സാമ്രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ (ബൈസന്റൈൻ സാമ്രാജ്യം) തലസ്ഥാനമായ കോൺസ്റ്റാന്റിനോപ്പിൾ (ഇന്നത്തെ ഇസ്താംബുൾ) ഓട്ടൊമൻ തുർക്കികൾ 1453ൽ കീഴടക്കിയ സംഭവമാണ് ചരിത്രത്തിൽ കോൺസ്റ്റാന്റ്നോപ്പിളിന്റെ പതനം എന്ന പേരിൽ അറിയപ്പെടുന്നത്. സുൽത്താൻ മുഹമ്മദ്‌ രണ്ടാമന്റെ നേതൃത്വത്തിലെത്തിയ തുർക്കി സൈന്യം 53 ദിവസത്തെ ഉപരോധത്തിന് ശേഷം മേയ് 29ന് കോൺസ്റ്റാന്റ്നോപ്പിൾ കീഴടക്കി. ഇതോടെ ബൈസാന്റിയൻ സാമ്രാജ്യത്തിന് അന്ത്യം സംഭവിച്ചു. ലോക ചരിത്രത്തെ വഴിതിരിച്ചുവിട്ട സംഭവങ്ങളിൽ ഒന്നാണ് ഈ കീഴടക്കൽ

പശ്ചാത്തലം[തിരുത്തുക]

കോൺസ്റ്റാൻ്റിനോപ്പിൾ കീഴടക്കുവാനുളള.

ഉപരോധം[തിരുത്തുക]

യുദ്ധഗതി[തിരുത്തുക]

==അവലംബം==no

  1. http://blog.milliyet.com.tr/1453-de-istanbul-u-fatih-e-karsi-savunan-osmanli-sehzadesi-kim-/Blog/?BlogNo=344096
  2. Constantine XI (1449–1453) and the capture of Constantinople
  3. 3.0 3.1 ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ <ref> ടാഗ്; Pertusi എന്ന അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് ടെക്സ്റ്റ് ഒന്നും കൊടുത്തിട്ടില്ല.
  4. 4.0 4.1 http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/readings/nicol.html
  5. Nicol, Donald M. (1999). Bizans'ın Son Yüzyılları (1261–1453). İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları. ISBN 975-333-096-0 s.418-420.
  6. Runciman, Steven (1965). The Conquest of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ഐ.എസ്.ബി.എൻ. 0-521-39832-0. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Merle Severy. Byzantine Empire. National Geographic. Vol. 164, No. 6 December 1983, p. 755?.
  8. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle ... , Spencer C. Tucker, 2009, p.343
  9. 9.0 9.1 http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars14011600/p/Byzantine-Ottoman-Wars-Fall-Of-Constantinople.htm#
  10. Nicolle, David (2000). Constantinople 1453: The end of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 45. ഐ.എസ്.ബി.എൻ. 1-84176-091-9. 
  11. http://www.os-ar.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=24133
  12. http://www.greece.org/romiosini/fall.html
  13. J. E. Kaufmann, Hanna W. Kaufmann: The Medieval Fortress: Castles, Forts, and Walled Cities of the Middle Ages, Da Capo Press, 2004, ISBN 0-306-81358-0, page 101
  14. Ikram ul-Majeed Sehgal: Defence Journal (Issue 8), 2005, page 49
  15. Daniel Goffman: The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-45908-7, page 52
  16. James Patrick: Renaissance And Reformation, Marshall Cavendish, 2007, ISBN 0-7614-7650-4, page 618
  17. Norwich, John Julius (1997). A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books. 
  18. Nicolle 2000.
  19. İnalcık, Halil (2008), Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Klasik Çağ (1300–1600)
  20. Chronicles of George Sphrantzes; Greek text is reported in A. Mai, Classicorum auctorum e Vaticanis codicibus editorum, tome IX, Romae 1837, pp 1–100
  21. The Destruction of the Greek Empire, Edwin Pears
  22. Leonardo di Chio, Letter,927B: "three hundred thousand and more".
  23. Nicolle 2000, p. 44.
  24. Uyar, Mesut; Erickson, Edward J. (2009). A military history of the Ottomans: from Osman to Atatürk. Santa Barbara: Praeger. p. 37. ഐ.എസ്.ബി.എൻ. 978-0-275-98876-0. 
  25. Michael Lee Lanning: The Battle 100: The Stories Behind History's Most Influential Battles, Sourcebooks, Inc., 2005, ISBN 1-4022-2475-3, pg 139–140
  26. Saul S. Friedman: A history of the Middle East, McFarland, 2006, ISBN 0-7864-5134-3, page 179
  27. Nicolle, David (2007). The Fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Conquest of Byzantium. New York: Osprey Publishing. pp. 237, 238. 
  28. Ruth Tenzel Fieldman, The Fall of Constantinople, Twenty-First Century Books, 2008, p. 99
  29. 29.0 29.1 http://burnpit.legion.org/2014/05/part-ii-fall-constantinople
  30. http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/readings/nicol.html
  31. 31.0 31.1 Steven Runciman: The Fall of Constantinople 1453, ISBN 1-107-60469-9, Cambridge University Press, 2012, page 215.

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