സഹായം:IPA chart for Spanish

വിക്കിപീഡിയ, ഒരു സ്വതന്ത്ര വിജ്ഞാനകോശം.

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
[b] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia best
[β̞] bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva [1] between baby and bevy
[d̪] dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
[ð̞] diva; arder; admirar [1] this
[f] fase; café [2] face
[ɡ] gato; lengua; guerra got
[ɰ] trigo; amargo; sigue; signo [1] between a light go and ahold
[ʝ] ayuno; poyo [1] as in yes
or between beige and due in RP English
[k] caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
[l] lino; alhaja; principal lean
[ʎ] llave; pollo [3] roughly like million (merged with /ʝ/ in
most dialects)
[m] madre; comer; campo; convertir [4] mother
[n] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum [4] need
[ɲ] ñandú; cabaña; enyesar [4] roughly like canyon
[ŋ] cinco; venga; conquista; enjambre [4] sink
[p] pozo; topo spouse
[r] rumbo; carro; honra; subrayo; amor [5] trilled r
[ɾ] caro; bravo; amor eterno [5] ladder in American English
[s] saco; casa; deshora; espita[6] xenón sack
[θ] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz [7][6] thing (in Peninsular Spanish only;
elsewhere, merged with /s/)
[t̪] tamiz; átomo stand
[tʃ] chubasco; acechar choose
[x] jamón; eje; reloj[6] general; México loch (pronounced [h] in many dialects;
like ham)
[z] isla; mismo; deshuesar [8][6] prison
Marginal phonemes[9]
IPA Examples English approximation
[ʃ] Kirchner; Xelajú; sherpa [10] shack
[tɬ] tlapalería; cenzontle; Popocatépetl somewhat like cattle
[ts] Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
[ä] azahar father
[e̞] vehemente play (Yorkshire dialect)[11]
[i] dimitir; mío; y see
[o̞] boscoso coat (Yorkshire dialect)[12]
[u] cucurucho; dúo food
 
Semivowels[13]
IPA Examples English approximation
[j] aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad you
[w] cuadro; fuego; Huila[14] arduo wine
 
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
[ˈ] ciudad [θjuˈðað] / [sjuˈðað] domain
[ˌ] elo [ˈleeˌlo] intonation
. mío [ˈmi.o] moai

ഉള്ളടക്കം

Notes[തിരുത്തുക]

Other than in loanwords (e.g. hámster; hachís; hawaiano), the letter ‹h› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as [h] or [x] (halar / jalar; hara).[15]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are between fricatives and approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pause, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, g, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. The phoneme /f/ is often pronounced as [ɸ], with the lips touching each other rather than the front teeth.
  3. In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ occurs.
  5. 5.0 5.1 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, before consonants, and word-finally; [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 For many speakers, fricatives (/s/, /θ/ and /x/) may debuccalize or be deleted in the syllable coda (at the end of words and before consonants); e.g. reloj [reˈlo].
  7. In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia /θ/ has merged into /s/. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  8. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  9. The marginal phonemes are found in loanwords, largely from Basque, English, and Nahuatl.
  10. In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  11. The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  12. The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  13. In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  14. Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /g/; e.g. Huila [ˈgwila]~[ˈwila].
  15. "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española. 

See also[തിരുത്തുക]

References[തിരുത്തുക]

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), Castilian Spanish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259 

External links[തിരുത്തുക]

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