See Mandarin phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Mandarin. Please note that English equivalents given in this page may only represent very approximate sounds to the original pronunciations.
↑ 1.01.1ü ([y], [ɥ]) is spelled u after j, q, x as [u], [w] cannot occur after these consonants.
↑ 2.02.12.2wei, you, wen are spelled ui, iu, un respectively in pinyin, but pronounced identically, when preceded by a consonant.
↑Slightly "buzzing" vowels. In shi, zhi, chi, ri, the vowel is also retracted: [ɨ˞], rather like the ir in US English bird. These are sometimes transcribed as syllabic fricatives ([z̩], [ʐ̩]), but there is little frication.
↑uo is spelled o when preceded by b, p, m or f; however, it is pronounced similarly.
↑Only occurs in erhua and generally not considered part of the main vowel inventory.